The composition of MHHPA and TBPM in the resin was optimized to m

The composition of MHHPA and TBPM in the resin was optimized to minimize yellowness of the cycloaliphatic epoxy hybrimer bulk. The sample with the optimized composition showed little discoloration upon thermal aging at 120 degrees C for 360 h under an air atmosphere. On the basis of its high thermal stability with appropriate hardness and a high refractive index of 1.55, cycloaliphatic epoxy hybrimer bulk can be used as a LED encapsulant for white LEDs. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals,

Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2140-2145, 2010″
“Objective-To compare ultrasonographic, CT, and surgical findings in dogs infested with giant kidney worms (Dioctophyme renale).

Design-Case series.

Animals-15 crossbred dogs infected with D renale.

Procedures-Immediately after ultrasonography was performed with dogs in dorsal recumbency, sequential GDC-0994 in vitro transverse images of the abdomen were acquired with a helical CT scanner. After

plain CT, contrast CT was performed with a nonionic iodinated contrast agent. Subsequently, exploratory celiotomy was performed.

Results-In the corticomedullary area of the right kidney of 12 dogs, ultrasonography revealed several ring-like structures with an echogenic wall and anechoic central LY3023414 nmr area in the transverse plane and arrayed as bands in the longitudinal plane. Similar structures were observed in the abdominal cavity of 10 dogs. In 13 dogs, CT revealed loss of corticomedullary differentiation

FDA approved Drug Library in vitro in the right kidney, with discrete uptake of contrast material in the periphery of the kidney, and several ring-like or elongated structures with a hyperdense wall and hypodense center. In 11 dogs, the same structures were observed free in the abdominal cavity. Surgery revealed that 13 dogs had a damaged right kidney that required nephrectomy. Parasites were found free in the abdominal cavity of 7 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Ultrasonography and CT were effective imaging methods for detecting D renale in the kidney and less effective for detecting parasites in the abdominal cavity. Care should be taken to avoid erroneously interpreting normal structures as parasites, especially in the abdominal cavity.”
“To investigate the regulatory mechanism(s) of ethylene biosynthesis in fruit, transgenic tomatoes with all known LeEIL genes suppressed were produced by RNA interference engineering. The transgenic tomato exhibited ethylene insensitivity phenotypes such as non-ripening and the lack of the triple response and petiole epinasty of seedlings even in the presence of exogenous ethylene. Transgenic fruit exhibited a low but consistent increase in ethylene production beyond 40 days after anthesis (DAA), with limited LeACS2 and LeACS4 expression.

“Lung cancer and bronchogenic carcinoma are malignancies o

“Lung cancer and bronchogenic carcinoma are malignancies originating from the airways and pulmonary parenchyma. Most (approximately A-1331852 inhibitor 90%) lung cancers are classified as non-small cell lung cancer. This distinction carries important differences for staging, treatment, and prognosis. This article presents a review of mediastinal staging for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.”
“Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and is often

complicated by the development of pulmonary hypertension (PHT). The presence of PHT in COPD subjects is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and use of health-care resources. Thus, there has been significant effort to treat PHT in COPD patients to achieve improved clinical outcomes, but with only minimal success. There is renewed interest in understanding the mechanisms contributing to PHT in COPD as the basis for exploring new therapeutic strategies. In this

study we review the evidence supporting the postulated mechanisms contributing to PHT in COPD. Hypoxia plays a pivotal role in the development of COPD-associated PUT. However, other mechanisms are also likely involved in the pathogenesis of increased pulmonary vascular resistance in this cohort, including acidemia, dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation, parenchymal destruction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. These mechanisms are interdependent, I-BET151 modulated by genetic factors, and may be confounded by comorbidities such as sleep-disordered breathing, left heart failure and pulmonary thromboembolism. Despite significant research in recent decades, there is surprisingly little evidence of a causal relationship between many of these factors and the development of COPD-associated PHT. The pathogenesis of PHT in COPD is complex and multifaceted. Ultimately, as we Raf 抑制剂 obtain better information on COPD phenotypes, we may be able to more precisely account for the varied pathologic mechanisms of PHT occurring in various COPD patients. This may ultimately enable targeted

PUT therapy for each COPD phenotype. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:557-64 (C) 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“The problems of environmental change and biodiversity loss have entered the mainstream political agenda. Given the call from an increasingly influential environmental lobby for government and wider society to make both financial and personal sacrifices to address these problems, it seems likely that conservation biologists and environmental managers will be asked tough questions of the general form are conservation interventions effective? and, ‘are they doing more good than harm?’ Science constantly advances and must remain open to challenge, but managers and policy formers require an interim product (an evidence-base) to underpin their current decision-making.

The resin obtained was characterized on the basis of elemental an

The resin obtained was characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy,

ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis. The number-average molecular weight was determined by nonaqueous conductometric titration. A thermal study of the resin was carried out to determine its mode of decomposition, activation energy, order of reaction, frequency factor, entropy change, free energy, and apparent entropy change. The Freeman-Carroll and Sharp-Wentworth methods were applied for the calculation of the kinetic parameters, and the data from the Freeman-Carroll method were used to determine various thermodynamic parameters. The chelation ion-exchange properties AZ 628 price of this resin were studied for Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+) ions. A batch equilibrium method was used in the study of the selectivity of the metal-ion uptake that involved the measurements of the distribution of a given metal ion between the polymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range and in media of various ionic strengths. The terpolymer showed a higher selectivity for Fe(3+) ions than for the other metal ions in

this study. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1969-1978, 2010″
“Introduction and objectives. Atrial arrhythmias occur after cardiac surgery in 10-65% of patients. The most common postoperative arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods. The Tehran Heart Center Cardiovascular Research database (of 15 580 patients) was used to identify all patients who PF-562271 developed any form of AF as a postoperative complication selleckchem following their first cardiac surgery (e.g. for coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG], valve surgery or both), with and without cardiopulmonary

bypass, between June 2002 and March 2008.

Results. Of the 15 580 patients who underwent a first cardiac surgery, 11 435 (73.4%) were male and their mean age was 58.16 +/- 10.11 years. New-onset AF developed postoperatively in 1129 (7.2%). New-onset AF occurred most frequently in patients who were aged 60 years and who had no history of beta-blocker use. In addition, patients were more likely to develop new-onset AF if they had valve surgery alone (16.5%) or CABG plus valve surgery combined (9.6%), needed intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC), or had a long cardiopulmonary bypass time. Multivariate analysis identified the following predictors of postoperative AF: older age, history of renal failure, congestive heart disease, operation type, longer perfusion time, and use of IABC. The incidence of early readmission (4.4%) was significantly higher in patients with postoperative AF, as was the duration of hospitalization, both overall and postoperatively. The short-term postoperative mortality rate was 3.8%.


For both glasses, the nonlinear layer is found to be sodium-deple

For both glasses, the nonlinear layer is found to be sodium-depleted up to 4 mu m inside the anode, in accordance with quantitative energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy characterizations. This comparative study indicates complex space-charge-migration processes during the poling treatment. The relative enhancement of the SHG signal of the silver doped glass is correlated with the increase in its linear

“The NF-��B inhibitor integration of water quality monitoring variables is essential in environmental decision making. Nowadays, advanced techniques to manage subjectivity, imprecision, uncertainty, vagueness, and variability are required in such complex evaluation process. We here propose a probabilistic fuzzy hybrid model to assess river water quality. Fuzzy logic reasoning has been used to compute a water quality integrative index. By applying a Monte Carlo technique, selleckchem based on non-parametric probability

distributions, the randomness of model inputs was estimated. Annual histograms of nine water quality variables were built with monitoring data systematically collected in the Colombian Cauca River, and probability density estimations using the kernel smoothing method were applied to fit data. Several years were assessed, and river sectors upstream and downstream the city of Santiago de Cali, a big city with basic wastewater treatment and high industrial activity, were analyzed. STI571 The probabilistic fuzzy water quality index was able to explain the reduction in water quality, as the river receives a larger number of agriculture, domestic, and industrial effluents. The results of the hybrid model were compared to traditional water quality indexes. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it considers

flexible boundaries between the linguistic qualifiers used to define the water status, being the belongingness of water quality to the diverse output fuzzy sets or classes provided with percentiles and histograms, which allows classify better the real water condition. The results of this study show that fuzzy inference systems integrated to stochastic non-parametric techniques may be used as complementary tools in water quality indexing methodologies. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Deletion polymorphisms for the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene are associated with increased risk of cancer, and are implicated in detoxifying mutagenic electrophilic compounds. GST Polymorphic variants were reported for different populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes among Bahraini, Lebanese and Tunisian Arabs. GST genotyping was done by multiplex PCR-based methods. Study subjects comprised 167 Bahrainis, 141 Lebanese and 186 Tunisians unrelated healthy individuals. GSTM1 deletion homozygosity of 49.7%, 52.5% and 63.4% were recorded for Bahraini, Lebanese and Tunisians, respectively.

35 mu g/g ww), and account for 2 44 to 45 5% (mean 16 8%) for raw

35 mu g/g ww), and account for 2.44 to 45.5% (mean 16.8%) for raw concentrations of phthalate TGF-beta inhibitor esters. In the present study, the accumulation ratio R-nn value of all phthalate esters was greater than 1 except for diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), DBP and di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP), suggesting that these phthalate esters could be accumulated during gastrointestinal digestion. Based on this health risk assessment, most of fish species were considered safe for consumption, however Hong Kong residents should take caution when consuming Mud carp and Bighead carp. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“An Arabidopsis thaliana drought-tolerant mutant, altered expression of APX2 (alx8),

has constitutively increased abscisic acid (ABA) content, increased expression of genes responsive to high light stress and is reported to be drought tolerant. We have identified alx8 as a mutation in SAL1, an enzyme that can dephosphorylate dinucleotide phosphates or inositol phosphates. Previously identified mutations in SAL1, including fiery (fry1-1), were reported as being more sensitive to drought imposed by detachment of rosettes. Here we demonstrate that alx8, fry1-1 and a T-DNA click here insertional

knockout allele all have markedly increased resistance to drought when water is withheld from soil-grown intact plants. Microarray analysis revealed constitutively altered expression of more than 1800 genes in both alx8 and fry1-1. The up-regulated genes included some characterized stress response genes, but few are inducible by ABA.

Metabolomic analysis revealed that both mutants exhibit a similar, dramatic reprogramming of metabolism, including increased levels of the polyamine putrescine implicated in stress tolerance, and the accumulation of a number of unknown, potential osmoprotectant carbohydrate derivatives. Under well-watered conditions, there was no substantial difference between alx8 and Col-0 in biomass at maturity; plant water use efficiency (WUE) as measured by carbon isotope discrimination; or stomatal index, morphology or aperture. Thus, SAL1 acts as a negative I-BET-762 manufacturer regulator of predominantly ABA-independent and also ABA-dependent stress response pathways, such that its inactivation results in altered osmoprotectants, higher leaf relative water content and maintenance of viable tissues during prolonged water stress.”
“P>In the last decade, significant advances have been achieved in the direct viewing of the skin. Non-invasive analysis of various skin diseases in vivo has become possible by special skin display devices, allowing the physician to view the structure and properties of the skin in greater detail than can be achieved by simple visual examination. We review the last 100 years of fluorescence imaging development from clinical observation to advanced spectral imaging, addressing the role of fluorescence diagnostics (FD) in modern dermatology as well as the detection of autofluorescence.

Concomitant regulation of miRNAs not in clusters was disrupted by

Concomitant regulation of miRNAs not in clusters was disrupted by HBV infection. However, such disruption was not observed for miRNAs in paralogous clusters. Furthermore, the level of miRNAs in the

CHB serum was up-regulated most in hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients. The expression levels of miR-122 and miR-194 correlated negatively with the age of patients with CHB or ACLF. Functional analysis showed that miR-122 could inhibit HBV replication in Huh7 and HepG2 cells. In all, our study revealed that a number of miRNAs were differentially expressed during HBV infection and underscored the potential importance of miR-122 in the infection process.”
“Background: The wide accessibility of computer-based technologies CH5424802 like the Internet and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems raises the question of whether population survey data could be collected more easily and cheaply compared to using paper Small molecule library manufacturer questionnaires. In the area of possibly stigmatized behaviors such as problematic alcohol and drug use, the question extends to whether the prevalence of such behaviors

in the general population could be surveyed without compromising the quality of the data.

Aims: This study compares Internet and IVR versions of the AUDIT and DUDIT with respect to: (1) response rate, (2) problematic alcohol and drug use and (3) reliability.

Method: 5000 individuals, randomly selected from the Swedish general population, were contacted via postal mail and invited to complete the AUDIT

and DUDIT questionnaires via Internet or IVR. In total, 1861 (37.8%) participated in the study, 1089 via Internet and 772 via IVR.

Results: The Internet administration mode yielded a higher response rate (38.1%) compared to the IVR mode (33.9%). When respondents were given a choice between Internet and IVR, a higher response rate resulted (43.2-46.6%). Problematic alcohol and drug use occurred among 21.1% and 2.8% of the sample, respectively, with no significant differences by administration mode. Both the AUDIT and DUDIT exhibited satisfactory reliability across administration modes, Cronbach’s alpha 0.76/0.86.

Conclusions: Data quality does not deteriorate with computerized administration methods for the AUDIT and pupil-in population studies but paper questionnaires should selleck inhibitor also be made available to respondents in order to maximize response rates. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Sexual reproduction depends on the production of haploid gametes, and their fusion to form diploid zygotes. Here, we discuss sperm production and function in a molecular and functional evolutionary context, drawing predominantly from studies in model organisms ( mice, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans). We consider the mechanisms involved in establishing and maintaining a germline stem cell population in testes, as well as the factors that regulate their contribution to the pool of differentiating cells.

We used powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscop

We used powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer, and ac susceptibility measurement techniques for characterization. The low-temperature magnetic behavior of CoCr2O4 nanoparticles have been

investigated in more detail. While the bulk CoCr2O4 exhibits two magnetic transitions viz., T-c approximate to 98 K and T-s approximate to 26 K, the nanoparticles here showed a T-c approximate to 84 K and T-s approximate to 25 K. We tentatively attribute this Emricasan Apoptosis inhibitor shift in T-c to finite size effects. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3204659]“
“There are no data in the veterinary literature relating to oxidative stress in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). The study aimed to determine levels of oxidative stress markers,

plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), in 15 CAD patients and 17 healthy dogs. A correlation between CADESI (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index) score and MDA was also determined. Significantly higher plasma MDA levels were found ALK signaling pathway in patients than in healthy dogs. The significant, highly positive correlation determined between CADESI score and MDA in the patient group indicates an association between the severity of CAD and the extent of oxidative damage to membrane lipids. There were no significant differences selleck in TAC, GPX and SOD between patients and healthy dogs. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress with increased lipid peroxidation could be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in dogs. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A consistent microscopic approach is developed to simulate the transmittance and Faraday rotation in all-garnet heteroepitaxial

magneto-optical photonic crystals (MOPCs). To compare the experimental and simulation results, [Bi3Fe5O12/Sm3Ga5O12](m) (BIG/SGG) MOPC designed to operate at a telecommunication wavelength lambda(res)=980 nm was chosen. It was composed of [BIG/SGG](5) and [SGG/BIG](5) distributed Bragg reflectors with a microcavity layer of BIG in between. The dispersion relations of the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the permittivity tensor (epsilon) over cap for BIG in the electric dipole approximation were obtained from the simulation of the transmittance and Faraday rotation for a reference single layer BIG film. Revealed dispersion relations were then combined with the 4 x 4 matrix formalism for magnetic superlattices to compute transmission and Faraday rotation spectra of the MOPC. The results of numerical simulations were found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3195067]“
“The first part of our study (Muller et al.

FindingsNo measurable effects of the GP guideline on (dispensed)

FindingsNo measurable effects of the GP guideline on (dispensed) prescriptions were observed. Shortly HIF inhibitor after the start of health insurance coverage, an estimated increase in primary care prescriptions of 6.3 per 1000 smokers [95% confidence interval (CI)=2.9-9.8; P=0.001] and 17.3 dispensed items per 1000 smokers (95% CI=12.5-22.0; P<0.000) was accompanied

by a sudden drop in smoking prevalence of 2.9% (95% CI=4.6-1.1; P=0.002) in the first quarter of 2011. Immediately after the coverage abolition, smoking prevalence increased by 1.2% (95% CI=0.5-2.8; P=0.156) and dispensed prescription rates decreased with 21.6 per 1000 smokers (95% CI= 26.0-17.2; P<0.000).

ConclusionsFull health insurance coverage for smoking cessation treatment in the Netherlands was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of (dispensed) prescriptions of stop-smoking medication and a decrease in smoking prevalence.”

of review

A time-related negative trend in male reproductive function has been suggested. It has been hypothesized that this is due to exposure to chemicals interfering with the action of sex hormones. Also a negative effect of phytoestrogens on male fertility has been postulated. This review aimed to review the epidemiological evidence of deteriorating male reproductive function and summarize the most recent literature on exposure to endocrine disrupters DNA Damage inhibitor and phytoestrogens in relation to male fertility and/or semen quality.

Recent findings

There is no doubt that the incidence of testicular cancer has increased through the past 50 years, a decline in sperm counts, if any, may have leveled off during the past decade. There are some reports indicating negative association between exposure to certain chemicals and sperm parameters such evidence has not been found for phytoestrogens. The majority of these studies have been limited to assessing postnatal exposure.


Although possible

negative selleck compound impact of industrial chemicals and male fertility is an important issue on the research agenda, so far, it has no clinical implications. The future research should focus on looking at the impact of low dose exposure to a mixture of chemicals, two generation studies and gene-environment interaction.”
“Abdominal (central) obesity strongly correlates with (hepatic) insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Among several hypotheses that have been formulated, the portal theory proposes that the liver is directly exposed to increasing amounts of free fatty acids and pro-inflammatory factors released from visceral fat into the portal vein of obese patients, promoting the development of hepatic insulin resistance and liver steatosis.

These patients expected the doctors to start the conversation abo

These patients expected the doctors to start the conversation about sexuality rather than asking about CP-868596 purchase it. FSFI survey revealed that all the patients had

sexual dysfunction.

Conclusion: Sexual rehabilitation should thus be fully addressed in all spinal units and rehabilitation centers, along with other aspects of rehabilitation.”
“Objective. Prenatal prediction of neonatal survival and survival without short term major morbidity (STMM) in babies born at the borderline of viability.

Methods. Obstetric and neonatal records of 471 babies born from 22 0/7 to 25 6/7 weeks between the years 2000 to 2007 were reviewed. A total of 179 live-born nonanomaluos singleton infants with birth-weights of 300-1397 g, who underwent ultrasonographic examination < 7days before delivery, qualified for the study. Ultrasound biometry, use of antenatal steroids, fetal gender, race, gestational age, estimated fetal weight, and maternal medical and obstetric characteristics were evaluated. Univariate analyses, logistic regression,

and bootstrapping using 10,000 resamplings were performed to derive prediction formulas that projected selleck kinase inhibitor neonatal outcomes. From these, quantitative patient-specific prenatal estimates of neonatal survival and survival without STMM were calculated.

Results. On the basis of the use of prenatally available parameters, neonatal survival was predicted with a sensitivity of 85.5% and specificity of 70.6%. Area under ROC curve (95%CI) = 0.835 (0.777-0.894). Corresponding Selleckchem NU7441 values for survival without STMM were 94.7% and 34%. Area under ROC curve (95%CI) 0.738 (0.640-0.836). Among positive predictors of survival it is worth mentioning: intact membranes, femur length >= 39.1 mm and estimation

of fetal weight > 493g.

Conclusion. Prenatal prediction of neonatal survival and STMM was achieved. This approach has the potential improve counseling and obstetric decision making at the borderline of viability.”
“The Rho-family small GTPase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), has been implicated in renal and cardiac disease. Rac1 activation in podocytes has been shown in several models of proteinuric kidney disease and a concept involving motile podocytes has been proposed. Evidence also exists for a critical role of Rac1-mediated oxidative stress in cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, and of the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid-receptor system in proteinuria and cardiac disorders. However, plasma aldosterone concentrations are not always increased in these conditions and the mechanisms of mineralocorticoid-receptor overactivation are difficult to determine. Using knockout mice, we identified a novel mechanism of Rac1-mediated podocyte impairment; Rac1 potentiates the activity of the mineralocorticoid receptor, thereby accelerating podocyte injury.

The etiologies in our study differ from those in Taiwan and are s

The etiologies in our study differ from those in Taiwan and are similar to those in the West with the exception that Streptococcus species were the most common etiologic pathogens in our study whereas anaerobes are the most frequent etiologic pathogens in Western countries. S. mitis and Gemella species are important etiologic pathogens as well. The identification of Actinomyces

and Nocardia is important in order to define the adequate duration of antibiotic administration. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“It is widely accepted that air pollution can exacerbate asthma in those who already have the condition. What is less clear is whether air pollution can contribute to the initiation of new cases of asthma. Mechanistic evidence from toxicological

studies, AZD8186 manufacturer together with recent information on genes that predispose towards the development of asthma, suggests that this is biologically plausible, particularly in the light of the current understanding of asthma as a complex disease with a variety of phenotypes. The epidemiological evidence for associations between ambient levels of air pollutants and asthma prevalence at a whole community level is unconvincing; meta-analysis confirms a lack of association. In contrast, a meta-analysis of cohort studies found an association between asthma incidence and within-community variations in air pollution (largely traffic dominated). Similarly, a systematic review suggests an association of asthma prevalence with exposure to traffic, although only in those living very close to heavily trafficked roads carrying a lot of trucks. Based learn more on this evidence, the UK’s Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants recently concluded that, overall, the evidence is consistent with the possibility that outdoor air pollution might play a role in causing asthma in susceptible individuals living find more very close to busy roads carrying a lot of truck traffic. Nonetheless, the effect on public health is unlikely to be large: air pollutants are likely to make only a small contribution, compared with other factors, in the development of asthma, and in only a small proportion of the

“The volume of the gastric reservoir appears crucial to explain the success of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in the treatment of morbid obesity. The aims of this study were to describe a new, easy model to estimate gastric reservoir volume after LSG; to evaluate the volumetric changes 1 year after surgery; and to analyze their relationship with weight loss.

This is a prospective observational study of all patients undergoing LSG in the Department of Surgery at our institution. The gastric reservoir was evaluated radiologically considering the image as a complex geometrical shape with two components: a cylinder (gastric body) and a truncated cone (antrum). Radiologic assessment using this new model was performed at 1 and 12 months after surgery.