3B) The embryo mortality and observed hemorrhagic characteristic

3B). The embryo mortality and observed hemorrhagic characteristics were attributed to BTV since BTV RNA was detected only in swabs from homogenized embryos that had been inoculated with blood from controls. In contrast, no dead or hemorhaggic embryos were observed following inoculation with blood from vaccinated calves and no BTV RNA was detected in these embryos (Fig. 3B). BTV-8-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in the sera of 5/6 vaccinated calves 1 week after second vaccination and in all vaccinated calves 2 weeks later (mean: 4.5 ± 1.4 log2 titers) (Fig. 4A). These titers remained high 3 MK0683 supplier weeks after challenge. In contrast, BTV-8 neutralizing antibodies were only detected

in the sera of controls after challenge. BTV-8 VP2-specific

serum antibodies were detected by ELISA in all vaccinated calves 1 week after second immunization, continued to increase through 1 week after challenge, and remained stable 2 weeks later (Fig. 4B). VP2-specific antibodies were detected in controls 2 weeks after challenge and had increased 1 week selleck chemicals later. Increases in NS1-specific and NS2-specific serum antibody titers were detected in vaccinated calves 3 weeks after first and second vaccinations. Antibody titers to NS2 were significantly higher than those detected in controls 3 weeks after first vaccination (p ≤ 0.01) and to NS1 and NS2 3 weeks after second vaccination (p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01, respectively) ( Fig. 4C and D). Antibodies to NS1 and NS2 (BTV-2) were observed 3 weeks after BTV-8 challenge in the sera of controls and vaccinated calves, but did not differ significantly (p = 0.94 and p = 0.23, respectively). In vitro NS1-specific and NS2-specific lymphoproliferative responses were detected in PBMC of vaccinated calves (means: 0.04 ± 0.06 and 0.05 ± 0.02 COD, respectively)

3 weeks after second vaccination, at statistically higher levels than controls (means: 0.00 ± 0.01 and 0.02 ± 0.04 COD, respectively; p ≤ 0.05 for both) ( Fig. 5). Furthermore, BTV-8 specific lymphoproliferation was detected in vaccinated Levetiracetam calves (mean: 0.04 ± 0.04 COD) at this time point but not in any controls (mean: 0.00 ± 0.00 COD, p ≤ 0.01). No VP2-specific lymphoproliferatives responses were observed. VP7-specific serum antibodies were not detected in any calf before challenge, but were detected at high levels (≥75%) in 5/6 controls 2 weeks after challenge and in all controls 1 week later (mean: 92 ± 3%) (Fig. 6). Vaccinated calves also developed VP7-specific serum antibodies following challenge, but antibody levels remained significantly lower than those in controls (peak mean: 44 ± 22% at 2 weeks after challenge, p ≤ 0.01). In this study, we demonstrated that the experimental vaccine based on VP2 of BTV-8 combined with NS1 and NS2 of BTV-2 and an ISCOM–matrix adjuvant provided strong clinical and virological protection against virulent BTV-8 challenge in calves.

Fourteen days later (Visit 2), a further venous blood


Fourteen days later (Visit 2), a further venous blood

sample was collected for post-vaccination serum antibody titres. Plasma leptin and serum neopterin were measured at MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge check details UK. Leptin was measured by ELISA (R&D Systems, Abingdon, UK) and neopterin by a competitive enzyme immunoassay principle (BRAHMS Atiengesellschaft, Berlin, Germany). Both analytes were measured in duplicate and following manufacturers’ guidelines. Anti-Vi immunoglobulin G (IgG) analysis was conducted at the Laboratory of Developmental and Molecular Immunity, National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, USA. Briefly, microtitre plates were coated with Vi (0.2 μg/well) purified from Citrobactor freundii and goat anti-human IgG (Jackson Immuno Research Laboratories Inc., West Grove, PA) conjugated to alkaline phosphatase were used for ELISA.

The anti-Vi IgG standard was a plasma sample from an adult vaccinated with Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine (provided by Wendy Keitel, Baylor University, Houston, TX). The Vi antibody content of this serum was also assayed by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) by Pasteur Merieux Connaught. The antibody levels were expressed in ELISA units (EU) and the reference sera were assigned a value of 75 EU. All samples were run in duplicate. Antibody levels were calculated using Program ELISA, version 12 (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA). BIBW2992 The lowest detectable level of the assay for anti-Vi IgG was 0.1 EU.

Prior to analysis, all data were log transformed, and results are presented as geometric means. For anti-Vi antibody levels, data are expressed as ELISA units (EU). Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide specific IgG levels were measured at the WHO Pneumococcal Serology Reference Lab at the UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK. Standard enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods [11] were used to quantify anticapsular IgG antibodies to four specific Thiamine-diphosphate kinase pneumococcal serotypes (1, 5, 14 and 23F). These serotypes were selected on the basis of frequency of carriage within this population setting, 14 and 23F being amongst the most common [12], and their importance in causing invasive disease (1 and 5 account for >40% in a recent series of pneumococci causing bacteraemia [13]). Comparisons amongst group means were made using two-sample t-tests. Vaccine data are presented as geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sex specific z-scores were calculated using UK reference data [14]. Associations between contemporary measures and antibody response to vaccination were compared by linear (for continuous variables) or logistic (for binary variables) regression analysis.

After removing the medium,

After removing the medium, www.selleckchem.com/products/Gemcitabine-Hydrochloride(Gemzar).html splenocytes from individual mice at a density of 105 cells/well were stimulated with a pool of CSp peptides at a concentration of 5 μg/well for 48 h at 37 °C 5% CO2. Following incubation, plates were washed five times with PBS and were then incubated with 1 μg/ml of biotinylated anti-mouse antibodies (Mabtech) in PBS containing 0.5% FCS for 2 h at room temperature. After washing five times with PBS to remove free biotinylated anti-mouse antibodies, plates were incubated for 2 h with detection antibodies conjugated to streptavidin–alkaline phosphatase

at 1:1000 dilutions in the same buffer as above. The enzyme reaction was developed with nitroblue tetrazolium bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate chromogen substrate (Mabtech). The spot-forming units (SFU) per 105 cells were counted using a dissection microscope (Carl Zeiss, Stemi 2000-C). Multiscreen HTS-IP Filter Plates (96-wells, Millipore) were pre-wetted with 70% ethanol for 2 min, washed five times with

PBS and coated with 5 μg/ml of CSp in PBS buy Galunisertib overnight at 4 °C. Plates were blocked for 2 h at room temperature with complete medium. BM cells (105 cells per well) from the immunized mice were seeded in duplicates and stimulated individually with the C-CSp, N-CSp or IDE-CSp. Plates were incubated for 12 h at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 85% humidity. After the incubation period plates were washed five times with PBS and incubated for 2 h at room temperature with HRP-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (1:1000; Southern Biotech) in PBS, 5% FCS. After washing with PBS five times, the reaction was developed using a Vectastain 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) substrate kit (Vector laboratories, Burlingame, CA) according to manufacturer’s instructions. The reactions were stopped by washing plates with deionized water. Plates were dried in the dark and spots were counted using a dissection microscope (Carl Zeiss, Stemi 2000-C). Data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism Version 5 (Graphpad Software, Inc.,

San Diego, CA). The nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test was used for the comparison of means in different groups. For all through tests, p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. The combination of Ad35-CS and BCG-CS in a heterologous prime-boost regimen resulted in high-levels of CSp-specific IgG responses (Fig. 1). Moreover, antibody responses exhibited higher IgG2a (Th1-type responses) when comparing heterologous prime-boost Ad35-CS/BCG-CS to homologous prime-boost BCG-CS/BCG-CS immunizations (Fig. 1). Among the three CSp peptides tested (C-CSp, N-CSp and CSp-IDE), the response to C-CSp was synergistic and induced stronger IgG2a response in the group primed with Ad35-CS and boosted with BCG-CS (Fig. 2).

Pharmacovigilance (PhV) databases were screened from 1986 until 2

Pharmacovigilance (PhV) databases were screened from 1986 until 2013 without revealing signals – though as highlighted above there are doubts about as to the use of such a database in uncovering relationships between SCIT and e.g., neurodegenerative diseases having a latency period of many years. A perceived positive benefit–risk-ratio is reiterated in their statement. However, since the potential of accumulation of aluminium in the body is clearly significant in the course of SCIT, companies click here themselves indicate in relevant sections of their SmPCs as follows: “During therapy with AVANZ®preparations, taking

aluminium-containing drugs (e.g. antacids) should be restricted.” [67]. Additionally, “This product contains aluminium (4 mg). The risk of aluminium accumulation in tissues (CNS, bones) must be taken into account, in particular in case of renal insufficiency. The effects on the immune system of long-term administration of aluminium are unknown. As this preparation contains a considerable amount of aluminium, it is recommended to avoid taking other aluminium-containing medications (e.g. antacids) concomitantly.” [68]. Furthermore, selleck products “Patients with Alzheimer’s

disease, Down’s syndrome and renal insufficiency are theoretically at risk from aluminium intake, including alum precipitated allergenic extracts” [69]. While so far it has not yet been definitely clarified which form of aluminium acts as an antigen [70], immune reactions to antigenic aluminium as a consequence of SCIT is plausible. Such immune reactions would target aluminium deposits in the human body, which has the potential to contribute to the onset and progression of aluminium-induced

autoimmune diseases [59]. The amount of aluminium in SCIT is a significant addition to the lifelong exposure to the metal in children and adults. Taking this into account the toxicological considerations, it is not unreasonable to question the long-term impact this has on human health. Long-term aluminium adjuvant-based immunotherapy treatment unquestionably predisposes an individual to a likely set of circumstances that could lead to accumulation, MTMR9 toxicity and disease. According to Good Pharmacovigilance Practices, assessment of a benefit–risk relation must take into account the severity of the treated disease (e.g. hay fever), the presence of therapy alternatives, and to the type of risk assessed. In Germany, licensed and comprehensively documented alternative products with other depot mediators are commercially available for example use of l-tyrosine, a non-essential amino acid physiologically generated from phenylalanine and fully metabolised with a half-time of 48 h, has been well-documented as a commercial alternative for over 40 years [71], [72] and [73].

Blood serum was collected immediately before administration of st

Blood serum was collected immediately before administration of study vaccines and approximately 28 days and 1 year later. After study initiation, the protocol was amended to request an additional blood specimen at six months post-co-administration from additionally consented participants. Primary immunogenicity objective outcomes were the proportion of subjects with demonstrated seropositivity for JE and measles at 28 days post-co-administration.

Serum neutralizing antibodies to the Bejing-1 JE strain were measured by plaque I-BET151 research buy reduction neutralization test (PRNT) where the neutralizing titer was measured as the inverse dilution at which plaque counts were

reduced by 50%. Seropositivity for JE was then defined as a neutralizing antibody titer of ≥1:10, as recommended by the WHO [4]. Serum anti-measles immunoglobulin class G (IgG) antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent screening assay assay (ELISA) (Serion ELISA classic Measles Virus IgG, Serion GmbH, Würzburg, Germany). Seropositivity for measles was defined per the manufacturer’s instruction as an antibody concentration of >200 mIU/mL; “borderline” was 150–200 mIU/mL. Secondary immunogenicity outcomes included the geometric mean titer (GMT) of serum neutralizing antibody to JE and the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-measles IgG at 28 days post-co-administration

of study vaccines. Additional secondary objectives were immunogenicity at 6 months post-co-administration and at 1 year post-co-administration. In a separate post-hoc analysis, immunogenicity was also analyzed counting as seropositive all infants with “borderline” anti-measles IgG concentrations. All adverse reactions and adverse events were captured from the time of co-administration of study vaccines until 28 days later. Serious adverse events (SAEs)—as defined by ICH GCP and with the additional tuclazepam criterion of “important medical events that may not result in death, be life threatening, or require hospitalization may be considered SAEs when, based upon appropriate medical judgment, may jeopardize the subject and may require medical or surgical intervention to prevent one of the outcomes listed by ICH GCP”—occurring at any time during the study were further documented. During the 7 days post-co-administration of study vaccines parents completed diary cards for solicited and unsolicited events; parents were given specific grading scales for solicited events and a generic grading scale to apply to unsolicited events. Study physicians visited the homes of study subjects 2 or 3 days post-vaccination to check that completion of diary cards was proceeding well and to assist parents with any questions or problems.

2), indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles with the red

2), indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles with the reduction of silver ions. Silver nanoparticle synthesized, initially observed by color change from pale white to brown was further conformed by UV–visible spectroscopy. The color change occurs due to the excitation of surface plasmon resonance in the silver metal nanoparticle. Silver nanoparticles from endophytic fungi, Pencillium sp showed maximum absorbance learn more at 425 nm after 24 h of incubation

( Fig. 3), implying that the bioreduction of AgNO3 has taken place following incubation of the cell free culture filtrate along with AgNO3. Surface plasmon peaks were also located at 410 nm as reported by Shivaraj et al 15 using PD0332991 in vitro Aspergillus flavus. Whereas, Afreen et al 16 reported peak at 422 nm with Rhizopus stolonifer. Maliszewska et al 17 reported the absorption spectrum of spherical silver nanoparticles produced by Pencillium sp presents a maximum peak between 420 nm and 450 nm. TEM measurements were carried out to determine the morphology and size details of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. Size and shape of the nanoparticles were recorded from drop coated films of silver nanoparticles synthesized extracellularly by endophytic fungi, Pencillium sp. ( Fig. 4). TEM micrographs revealed nanosized and well dispersed silver nanoparticles formed predominantly spherical in shape with the size of 25 nm. FTIR spectroscopic

analysis is carried out to determine the possible interaction between silver and bioactive molecules which are responsible for the synthesis and stabilization of silver nanoparticles.

FTIR spectrum revealed that the silver nanoparticles synthesized from endophytic fungi, Pencillium sp. revealed two bands at 1644 and 1538 cm−1 that corresponds to the binding vibrations of amide I and amide II bands of proteins respectively 18( Fig. 5). While their corresponding stretching vibration were seen at 2923 and 3290 cm−1 and Florfenicol it is also known that protein nanoparticles interactions can occur either through free amino groups or cysteine residues in protein and via electrostatic attraction of negatively charged carboxylate groups in enzymes. 19 The three bands observed at 1393, 1233, and 1074 cm−1 can be assigned to C–N stretching vibrations of aromatic and aliphatic amines respectively. 18 These observations indicate the presence and binding of proteins with silver nanoparticles which plays an important role in stabilization and also as reducing agents by which well dispersed nanoparticles can be obtained. Antimicrobial activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were studied against pathogenic bacteria (clinical isolates) using agar well diffusion assay method and zone of inhibition were depicted in Fig. 6 and Table 1. Wells were loaded with different concentrations-20 μl, 40 μl, 60 μl and 80 μl of silver nanoparticles respectively.

More recent studies have examined novel behavioral outcomes,

More recent studies have examined novel behavioral outcomes,

including social buffering effects on pain tolerance (reviewed in Martin et al., 2014) and changes in alcohol consumption (Anacker et al., 2011; Hostetler and Ryabinin, 2014). Social housing impacts HPA axis responsiveness to a stressor or to hormonal stimulation via CRF. Following CRF administration, male group-housed rats have reduced CORT and ACTH relative to isolated males (Ruis et al., 1999). In young male guinea pigs, presence of the mother or an unfamiliar adult female attenuates increases in plasma ACTH, cortisol and vocalizations in response SNS-032 chemical structure to a novel environment (Hennessy et al., 2000), with additional, subtly varying effects across the lifespan (Hennessy et al., 2006). Studies in prairie voles allow for distinction between buffering by social peers and reproductive partners.

In prairie voles, exposure to a novel individual of the opposite sex leads to a decline in serum CORT over the following 15–60 min Bortezomib clinical trial in both males and females, while same-sex novel pairings did not influence serum CORT (DeVries et al., 1997 and DeVries et al., 1995). This decline in CORT may be important for the ability of the female to form a partner preference, while it must pass in order for males to form (CORT-dependent) partner preferences (DeVries, 2002). The nature of social buffering may be quite different within established social relationships: in prairie voles, female sibling pairs experienced elevated CORT Etomidate following separation and this effect was attenuated following reunion (unpublished data referenced in Carter et al., 1995). In males, loss of a female partner also

resulted in increased circulating CORT as well as increased adrenal weight (Bosch et al., 2009). The presence of a partner may provide social buffering from a stressor; female prairie voles that recovered alone from immobilization stress exhibited high levels of CORT and increased anxiety behavior, while females recovering with their male partner showed no such elevation (Smith and Wang, 2014). While CORT is an easily measured signal that often relates to stress level, it is worth noting that measurement of glucocorticoids is not always a clear indicator of either stress exposure or stressed affect, and stress may result in both enhanced and dampened CORT profiles depending on timing and chronicity (e.g. Sapolsky et al., 2000 and Beery et al., 2012). Social companionship has been associated with outcomes beyond the HPA axis, although many of these changes may ultimately be related to common pathways. For example, in prairie voles, females recovering from immobilization stress with a male partner showed no CORT elevation, coupled with evidence of increased oxytocin (OT) release in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus.

Participants gave separate written informed consent for both tria

Participants gave separate written informed consent for both trial participation and video-recording before data collection began. Competing interests: Nil. Support: This

project was supported by an Honours Grant from the National Stroke Foundation. The CIRCIT trial is funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant (#631904). Dr English selleck kinase inhibitor is supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council Training Fellowship (#610312). We thank the Physiotherapy staff of Hampstead Rehabilitation Centre, Repatriation General Hospital, and St Margaret’s Rehabilitation Hospital for participating in this study. Many thanks to the stroke participants who provided their see more consent to video-record their therapy sessions. “
“Full protocol: Available on the eAddenda at jop.physiotherapy.asn.au “
“Kinesio Taping has become an important adjunct to physiotherapy treatment in recent years, possibly enhanced by images of its use by high profile sports people. However, the evidence supporting Kinesio Taping and its proposed mechanisms of action are nascent and further welldesigned, controlled trials are required. This protocol describes a study that will investigate the

hypothesised mechanisms that underpin Kinesio Taping, specifically those that suggest creating convolutions in the skin facilitate the effect of taping. Investigation of the mechanism by which a widely applied therapeutic modality may have an effect is worthwhile as it may improve understanding of the condition and highlight additional approaches that may also be effective. This well-constructed protocol proposes investigating chronic non-specific low back pain with a 4-week intervention and a 3-month

follow-up period, with pain, function and perceived effect being monitored. The trial is exposed to some possibility of confounding as the heterogeneity of non-specific low back science pain is well known and the participant numbers are small. However this trial may provide guidance to clinical reasoning and improve explanation to patients. This study may show reasons for effectiveness of Kinesio Taping, however large randomised trials of Kinesio Taping compared to sham/placebo control conditions are still needed. “
“Summary of: Li F, et al (2012) Tai Chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. New Eng J Med 366: 511–519. [Prepared by Marco YC Pang, CAP Editor.] Question: Does Tai Chi improve postural control in patients with Parkinson’s disease? Design: Randomised, controlled trial and blinded outcome assessment. Setting: University clinic in USA. Participants: Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn and Yahr Stage 1–4) between the age of 40 and 85 years, and ability to walk with or without an assistive device were key inclusion criteria.

Fecal samples were negative for the presence of rotavirus antigen

Fecal samples were negative for the presence of rotavirus antigen in all the animals. No gross or microscopic histopathological changes were detected in either sex. All the animals were positive for rotavirus selleck chemicals llc antibodies before administration of the vaccine and remained positive 43 days after vaccination. The IgA was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as described previously [19]. Thus, SII hexavalent BRV vaccine did not cause any toxicity when administered as single and repeated dose by the oral route in Wistar rats and New Zealand

white rabbits. The studies also proved that along with the antigens, the formulation which contains stabilizers and antacid is safe. These results opened prospects for human clinical studies on the vaccine. Considering rotavirus serotype distribution in India, a pentavalent formulation which comprised of G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 serotypes was used for clinical development (Fig. 1). Three clinical studies (Phase I, Phase IIa and Phase IIb) have been conducted on SII BRV-PV in India (Registration numbers CTRI/2009/091/000821 and CTRI/2010/091/003064). The study populations included adults, toddlers and infants. All studies were approved by the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) and institutional ethics committees. They complied with all the national regulatory and ethical standards

as well as the ICH good clinical practices (GCP). An independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) monitored the safety and rights of the study subjects. The sera samples PD-0332991 order for rotavirus specific IgA antibodies were tested using IgA ELISA at the Christian Medical College, Vellore (India) [19] and stool samples for shedding were tested using rotavirus antigen detection kit (Generic Assays, Germany) at Metropolis Laboratory, Pune. Seroconversion was defined as a change in IgA concentration from <20 U/ml to ≥20 U/ml, or ≥3 fold rise in IgA titers in case of baseline titers ≥20 U/ml. The Phase I study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study to assess the safety of a single oral dose of SII BRV-PV sequentially in healthy adults, Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase toddlers and infants. The study also assessed

the immunogenicity and shedding of the vaccine. A single oral dose of the vaccine containing 106 FFU/serotype was investigated in 54 subjects (18 adults, 18 toddlers and 18 infants) who received vaccine or placebo in 2:1 ratio. BRV-PV was found safe and well tolerated in all three age groups. There was no serious adverse event (SAE). The few adverse events reported were mild and transient. Vaccine related events included nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea and vomiting (Table 1). Except for a few minor changes, the hematology, biochemistry and urine analysis results remained normal in all the groups. No shedding was seen in stool samples. As expected, the single dose of the vaccine did not show immune response in adults and toddlers.

Two safe and effective RV vaccines (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biol

Two safe and effective RV vaccines (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Belgium and RotaTeq, Merck Inc., USA) have been licensed in approximately 100 countries

worldwide since 2006 [4]. These vaccines have already been incorporated into the routine immunization programs in many countries of the Americas and Europe, as well as in Australia and South Africa [5]. With the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for the global use of RV vaccines [6], it is anticipated that these vaccines will soon be introduced more widely in immunization programs globally. RV expresses two surface proteins – NLG919 manufacturer VP7, which determines the G type specificity and VP4, which determines the P type specificity – that act as neutralizing antigens to elicit this website protective humoral immune responses. Since VP7 and VP4 are encoded by separate genome segments, both (sero)type specificity and type-specific immunity segregate in an independent manner [7]. By the early 2000s, global surveillance studies had identified at least 10 G and 11 P antigen types among

human rotavirus strains [8] and [9]. While these independently segregating G and P antigens could theoretically generate 110 unique strains through reassortment in vivo during mixed infections between strains with different types, 5 strains (G1P [8], G2P [4], G3P [8], G4P [8], and G9P [8]) have been found to be responsible for the majority of severe RV infections worldwide [8] and [9]. Additional strains with unusual antigen types or unusual combinations of common G and P types have been also identified, showing notable differences in some geographic areas. This remarkable Sodium butyrate diversity of human RV strains is associated with 3 major evolutionary mechanisms: accumulation of point mutations leading to antigenic drift; reassortment of cognate genome segments to promote antigenic shift; and zoonotic transmission of animal strains to introduce antigen types new into humans [10] and [11]. RV vaccination strategies have evolved with trials conducted with

various vaccine candidates, without solid knowledge of the mechanisms and mediators of protective immunity [12]. The relative importance of heterotypic and homotypic immunity to RV is still debated; however, evidence suggests that both may be important. Epidemiologic observations and animal experiments indicate that first RV infections elicit primarily homotypic antibodies, while subsequent infections evoke both homotypic and heterotypic immune responses [13], [14] and [15]. Both current licensed vaccines are administered in multiple doses (2 doses for Rotarix and 3 doses for RotaTeq), in part to mimic the immune response to natural RV infection and elicit both homotypic and heterotypic immunity [13], [16], [17] and [18].