However, the findings of epidemiologic studies investigating the

However, the findings of epidemiologic studies investigating the association between infection with atopy and asthma have been inconsistent.\n\nObjective: We sought to investigate the effect of single or multiple

infections (pathogen burden) on atopy and wheeze in urban children from Latin America.\n\nMethods: Specific IgE against aeroallergens (sIgE) and skin prick test (SPT) reactivity for the most common local allergens were measured in 1128 children aged 4 to 11 years. Data on wheezing and potential confounders were collected by questionnaire. Infections by 8 pathogens were assessed by using serology and stool examination. Associations of wheeze and atopic outcomes with single and multiple infections were analyzed by means of logistic regression.\n\nResults: Ricolinostat order Negative results for Toxoplasma gondii were associated with a higher prevalence of sIgE (>= 0.70 kU/L), whereas negative results for Ascaris selleck chemicals llc lumbricoides, T gondii, herpes simplex virus, and EBV were associated with a higher prevalence of SPT reactivity. Children with 3 or fewer infection markers had a higher prevalence of sIgE and SPT reactivity compared with those with 4 or more infection markers. However, isolated infections or pathogen burden were not associated with the prevalence of atopic or nonatopic wheeze.\n\nConclusion: The findings provide support for the idea that the

hygiene hypothesis is operating in an urban Latin American context, GSK1838705A Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor but its expression is thus far restricted to the atopic status of patients and not the perceived asthma symptoms. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;129:359-67.)”
“Preclinical pain assessment remains a key step for the development of new and potent painkillers. Significant progress in pain evaluation has been achieved with the development of non-reflexive tools. Seeking efficient and clinically relevant devices for pain-related quality of life assessment, we evaluated a new Dynamic Weight Bearing (DWB) device based on pressure captors in three different preclinical chronic pain models.

Inflammatory (CFA), neuropathic (CCI) and bone cancer pain (femoral tumor) models were evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats for mechanical allodynia using dynamic von Frey for pain-related behaviors and DWB for discomfort. We observed similar impairment patterns in all of the models for both von Frey (allodynia) and DWB (weight balance) during the complete observation period, starting at day 3 in CCI- and CFA-affected limbs and at day 14 in bone cancer-afflicted rats, indicating that the DWB could be a useful tool for supporting pain assessment. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the main compensation, when animals experienced pain, was seen in the forepaws, ranging from 46% to 69% of increased load compared to normal. Other pain-related coping behaviors were also measured, such as the time spent on each paw and the contact surface.

We also tested whether floral longevity increases pollination suc

We also tested whether floral longevity increases pollination success. Pollination experiments showed that the two species were self-compatible and depended on insects for fruit production. Over several flowering seasons we did not

observe any potential pollinators with long tongues that matched the corolla tube visiting flowers in centres of distribution. The principal pollinators observed were pollen-collecting generalist bees, with low visitation frequencies. In general, members of the ginger family are characterised by short-lived (usually 1 day) flowers, but flowers of R. cautleoides and R. humeana last 8 and 6 days, respectively. Removing stigmas decreased fruit set in both study populations. Selleckchem CUDC-907 Our results suggest that the original

pollinators may have been long-tongued insects that are now absent from the Chinese Himalayas because habitats have responded to climate change. However, long-lived and self-compatible flowers, coupled with the presence of generalist pollinators, are traits that have allowed these gingers to reproduce and continue to persist in the alpine habitats.”
“Statement of problem. With conflicting results in the literature and various manufacturer recommendations, it is not known what cementation protocols are currently being used for implant restorations in Savolitinib supplier US dental schools.\n\nPurpose. The purpose of this survey was to determine what dental cementation protocols are taught and recommended by 62 US dental schools and postgraduate programs.\n\nMaterial and

methods. From February to September 2008, 96 questionnaires consisting of 8 questions were sent to the chairperson or director of restorative departments, advanced prosthodontics programs, and implant programs. The questionnaire asked recipients which implant manufacturers provided the products used at their dental schools. Additionally, recipients were queried as to the choice of material and techniques for abutment and restoration preparations prior to definitive cementation. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics.\n\nResults. A total of 68 (71%) surveys were returned, and 52 (84%) of the 62 predoctoral and postgraduate programs were represented. After deleting duplicate responses, 31 surveys were returned from restorative department BKM120 chairpersons, 29 from advanced prosthodontic program directors, and 2 from implant program directors. Frequency of responses to each question was tabulated, and results are presented in 3 sections. For all 3 types of programs, Nobel Biocare was reported to be the most widely used implant system, followed by Biomet 3i, Straumann, Astra Tech, and Zimmer Dental systems. The most commonly used technique prior to definitive cementation is to airborne-particle abrade the intaglio surface of the restoration. Resin-modified glass ionomer is the most frequently used luting agent for cementing implant restorations.

Such mechanisms have been found in both eukaryotic and prokaryoti

Such mechanisms have been found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In bacteria a number of different systems such as extra- and intracellular INCB024360 chemical structure sequestration, enzymatic detoxification, and metal removal from the cell enabling them to survive in the presence of high concentration of copper have been identified. Gram-negative bacteria, due to their additional compartment, need to deal with both cytoplasmic and periplasmic copper. Therefore,

these bacteria have evolved intricate and precisely regulated systems which interact with each other. In this review the active mechanisms of copper resistance at their molecular level are discussed.”
“In bilateral organisms, fluctuating

asymmetry (FA) was often used as an index of developmental instability but FA was not always found to be higher in stressful environments. An intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was used to search for genetic variation in fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of both wing length (WL) and wing width (WW) in Drosophila melanogaster when reared at both benign (25 degrees C) and stressful (30 degrees C) temperatures. FA levels did not differ between benign and stressful temperatures. At benign temperature, no QTL was significant for FA. However, at stressful temperature, composite interval mapping revealed some QTL for FA in both WL and WW. QTL-based scans under stressful thermal environments may be an informative approach for either FA or developmental instability analyses, even when FA levels are similar between stressful and Microbiology inhibitor benign environments. (C) 2011 Elsevier

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of the present study check details was to ascertain whether plasma levels of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with distant metastasis (DM) in gastric cancer (GC). miRNA profiling was performed on 12 pairs of samples of gastric cancer with distant metastasis (GC/DM) and gastric cancer with no distant metastasis (GC/NDM); 14 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified for further inspection. Validation of these 14 miRNAs using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) on an independent validation set identified 2 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-122 and miR-192). Further validation of these two candidate miRNAs was conducted in a disease control set, a self-paired plasma set and finally in gastric cell lines in vitro. The results revealed that when compared with GC/NDM and healthy controls (HCs), plasma levels of miR-122 were significantly lower and plasma levels of miR-192 were significantly higher in GC/DM samples (both P<0.01). The plasma miR-122 level was again lower and the plasma miR-192-level was again higher in patients with GC/DM than in patients with benign gastric ulcer (BGC) and chronic gastritis (CG) (P<0.01).

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and c

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of ICAN in ADPKD.\n\nMethods-We screened 355 patients with ADPKD (mean age, 46.5 +/- 13.2 years; range, 7 to 87 years) with 3-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography. Size, location, and morphology of aneurysms were assessed. The prevalence and characteristics of ICAN in patients with ADPKD were evaluated. Patients with ICAN found by MR angiography and moderate renal function subsequently were recommended to undergo digital subtraction

angiography for comparison.\n\nResults-The prevalence of ICAN in ADPKD was 12.4% (95% CI, 8.95% to 15.82%) with an equal gender distribution. The prevalence increased as age increased, reaching a peak value of 23.3% (95% CI, 16.85 to 29.75%) in the 60- to 69-year age group. The prevalence of ICAN DAPT cost in patients with ADPKD with a positive family ON-01910 history of hemorrhagic stroke or ICAN was higher than patients with ADPKD lacking such family history (relative risk, 1.968; 95% CI, 1.57 to 2.67). The mean diameter of ICAN was 3.85 +/- 3.25 mm. The most frequent site of ICAN was the internal carotid artery. The result of digital subtraction angiography

of 15 patients with 18 ICANs and moderate renal function corresponded to the detection of MR angiography.\n\nConclusion-The characteristics of ICAN in patients with ADPKD were different from some previous reports. Systematic screening of ICAN with 3-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography is recommended for patients with ADPKD, particularly for adult patients (>= 30 years) or patients with a positive family history of hemorrhagic

stroke or ICAN. (Stroke. 2011;42:204-206.)”
“Approximately Adriamycin 90% of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (00 exhibit dominant COL1A1 or COL1A2 mutations; however, molecular analysis is difficult because these genes span 51 and 52 exons, respectively. We devised a PCR-denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) procedure to analyze the COL1A1 or COL1A2 coding regions and validated it using 130 DNA samples from individuals without OI, 25 DNA samples from two cells to investigate the procedure’s potential for preimplantation diagnosis, and DNA samples from 10 patients with OI. Three novel intronic variants in vitro were expressed using a minigene assay to assess their effects on splicing. The procedure is rapid, inexpensive, and reproducible. Analysis of samples from individuals without OI revealed six novel and some known polymorphisms useful for linkage diagnosis because of high heterozygosity. Analysis of two-cell samples confirmed the known genotype in 24 of 25 experiments; DNA failed to amplify in only one case. No incidence of allele dropout was recorded. DHPLC revealed six novel mutations, three of which were intronic, in all patients with OI, and these results were confirmed by means of COL1A1 and COL1A2 direct sequencing.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“A systematic l

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A systematic literature review was performed regarding the burden on mental health caregivers. The studies were selected from the Virtual Health Library – Biblioteca Virtual de Sa de (BVS), using the keyword caregiver burden. The main criteria for this study were: full-text articles published between 2000 and 2010, in Portuguese, English or

Spanish; indexed on the BVS databases; which investigated the burden of mental health caregivers, and had caregivers as the main subject. The analysis was performed considering the following: title, year of publication, objectives, methodological approach, instruments and main results. The analysis of 114 full-text articles showed the predominant Torin 1 molecular weight objectives were the burden on

informal caregivers and the validation selleckchem of psychometric scales, particularly the Zarit Scale. Some studies showed an association between high levels of burden, feelings of guilt and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, psycho-educational interventions were indicated as having a positive impact. This theme has a growing scientific interest and there is a need for deeper studies addressing formal caregivers.”
“PurposeTo study balanced steady-state free precession CINE phase-sensitive water-fat separation imaging in four cardiac imaging planes to determine the necessary phase correction and image artifacts particular to this technique. MethodsTen healthy volunteers and two subjects with known heart pathologies were studied with standard balanced steady-state free precession CINE imaging.

Water-only and fat-only images were calculated using sign detection of the real part of the complex image after phase correction with constant and linear terms. Phase correction values were determined using both manual and automated methods. Differences in phase correction values between imaging planes, cardiac phases, coil elements, automated image reconstruction parameters as well as artifact scores between the automated and manual methods were studied with statistical tests. ResultsWater-fat separation performed well in the heart after constant and linear phase correction. Both constant (p = 0.8) and linear x (p = 1) and y (p = 1) phase correction values did not vary significantly across cardiac phases, but S63845 varied significantly among the coils (p smaller than 0.001) and imaging planes (p smaller than 0.001). False water-fat separation artifacts were most frequent in the chest/back and also were present at the mitral and aortic valves. ConclusionConstant and linear phase correction is necessary to provide consistent results in standard imaging planes using a balanced steady-state free precession water-fat separation postprocessing algorithm applied to standard cardiac CINE imaging. Magn Reson Med 71:2096-2104, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Events at – 80 pA were also observed for the mutant A30P AS in th

Events at – 80 pA were also observed for the mutant A30P AS in the presence of dopamine. Event profiles for an N-terminal 1-60-residue LBH589 in vivo peptide and a C-terminal 96-140-residue peptide were both altered in the presence of 25 mu M dopamine. In contrast, dopamine had little effect on the CD spectrum of AS, and a single binding site with a K-a of 3.5 x

10(3) M-1 was estimated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Thus, dopamine can interact with both the N-terminus and the C-terminus. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy of AS in the presence of dopamine showed that there were significant changes in the spectra in all regions of the protein. According to these findings, a model is presented in which dopamine induces folding between the N-terminus and C-terminus of AS. Partially folding conformations such as this may represent important intermediates in the

misfolding of AS that leads to fibrillization.”
“Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have recently been associated with the development and progression of a variety of human cancers. However, to date, the interplay between known oncogenic or tumor-suppressive events and lncRNAs has not been well described. Here, the novel lncRNA, prostate cancer-associated transcript 29 (PCAT29), is characterized along with its relationship to the androgen receptor. PCAT29 is suppressed by DHT and upregulated upon castration therapy in a prostate cancer xenograft model. PCAT29 knockdown significantly increased proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells, AZD1208 XMU-MP-1 in vitro whereas PCAT29 overexpression conferred the opposite effect and suppressed growth and metastases of prostate tumors in chick chorioallantoic membrane assays. Finally, in prostate cancer patient specimens, low PCAT29 expression correlated with poor prognostic outcomes. Taken together, these data expose PCAT29 as an androgen-regulated tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. (C) 2014 AACR.”
“The ultrasonic degradation of hazardous organic compounds in an aqueous solution is an attractive technology for wastewater treatment. The kinetics of ultrasonic degradation has been investigated. However, there have

been only a few quantitative studies of the effect of ultrasonic frequency on degradation rate. In this study, the ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue was performed at various frequencies, especially in the high frequency region, and various initial concentrations. From the results of the time dependence of the methylene blue concentration in this study, ultrasonic degradation was considered to be a pseudo-first-order reaction. The apparent degradation rate constant and sonochemical efficiency have a linear relationship, and the apparent rate constant and initial concentration have an inversely proportional relationship. These phenomena well agree with our proposed formula for estimating the apparent degradation rate constant.

This study

This study CAL 101 investigated the framework by which histone marks influence DNA methylation at a genome-wide level. Using RNAi in a pluripotent human embryonic carcinoma cell line we depleted essential components of the MLL/COMPASS, polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and PRC1 histone modifying complexes that establish, respectively, the post-translational modifications H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and H2AK119ub, and assayed the impact of the subsequent depletion of these marks on the DNA methylome. Absence of H2AK119ub resulted predominantly in hypomethylation across the genome. Depletion of H3K4me3 and, surprisingly, H3K27me3 caused CpG

island hypermethylation at a subset of loci. Intriguingly, many promoters were co-regulated by all three histone marks, becoming hypermethylated with loss of H3K4me3 or H3K27me3 and hypomethylated with depletion of H2AK119ub, and many of these coregulated loci were among those commonly targeted for aberrant hypermethylation in cancer. Taken together, our results elucidate novel roles for polycomb and MLL/COMPASS in regulating DNA methylation and define targets of this regulation.”
“Background: The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) A-subunit has been reported to be a critical autoantigen in the generation of thyroid-stimulating antibodies, thereby causing Graves’ disease (GD). However, immune mechanisms associated with GD animal

Hippo pathway inhibitor models induced by TSHR A-subunit are poorly understood until now.\n\nMethods: Female BALB/c mice (n = 23) were randomly divided into two groups, and GD presentation was monitored following injection with either 50 ml phosphate-buffered saline containing 10(9) particles of adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit (Ad-TSHR289) or the Ad-LacZ control. Expressions selleck inhibitor of CD40, CD40L, CD80, CD86, CD28, CTLA-4,

FOXP3 and IL-17A in various tissues were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical assays.\n\nResults: Compared with control group, mice of the hyperthyroid group showed significant elevation of expression in the thyroid of CD40 and CD86, expression in the heart of CD28, CD40 and CD40L and expression in the liver of CD28, CD40 and CD86. Conversely, there was significantly diminished expression of CTLA-4 in the thymus of mice in the hyperthyroid group. Expression of all genes examined was not significantly different in the spleens of mice from either of the groups and CD40L and FOXP3 expression was not detected in the thyroids of hyperthyroid mice.\n\nConclusions: The expression profile of multiple immune-related molecules differed in mice in the GD group following Ad-TSHR289 immunization, suggesting that these molecules played a potential role in GD pathogenesis.”
“Morphological and genetic diversity among the three neighboring sheep breeds native to Central valley of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan) was investigated.

The impairment of the motif B in the Isi1 promoter resulted in th

The impairment of the motif B in the Isi1 promoter resulted in the loss of iron response and the core regulatory region of the FBP1 promoter conferred an iron

response on the constitutive cytomegalovirus promoter, PCMV, indicating that these conserved promoter sequences DAPT concentration are iron-responsive elements. Finally, the inductive regulation of these promoters under iron-limited conditions was dissipated specifically by 5% CO2, strongly suggesting the participation of CO2 in the transcriptional regulation of the iron-related gene promoters. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.) is one of the most important commercial species of the northern and central Adriatic Sea, as well as one of the most productive fisheries in the whole Mediterranean. In the Adriatic Sea the stock of anchovy is shared between Italy, Croatia and Slovenia. A joint stock assessment was carried out using catch data from all the fleets for the time interval 1975-2009. Analyses selleck compound were performed using estimates of natural mortality at age obtained by means of two different methods and two population dynamics methods based on the analysis of catch-at-age data: Laurec-Sheperd virtual population analysis (VPA)

and integrated catch-at-age (ICA), both tuned to acoustic estimates of abundance. Gislason’s estimates for natural mortality appeared to be more realistic and were thus preferred for short-lived species. The general trend of biomass and fishing mortality is similar for the two models, highlighting

the major collapse of the stock in 1987. Nevertheless, ICA has enough flexibility to combine all the data available without adding too much complexity in comparison with a VPA approach and seems to perform better in terms of the spawning stock biomass/recruitment relationship and diagnostics (i.e. the retrospective pattern). For the stock status, the exploitation rate from ICA is higher than the suggested threshold of 0.4 proposed by Patterson for small pelagic species.”
“Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a diverse group of progressive, hereditary selleck kinase inhibitor diseases of the retina that lead to incurable blindness and affect two million people worldwide. Artificial photoreceptors constructed by gene delivery of light-activated channels or pumps (‘optogenetic tools’) to surviving cell types in the remaining retinal circuit has been shown to restore photosensitivity in animal models of RP at the level of the retina and cortex as well as behaviorally. The translational potential of this optogenetic approach has been evaluated using in vitro studies involving post-mortem human retinas. Here, we review recent developments in this expanding field and discuss the potential and limitations of optogenetic engineering for the treatment of RP. Gene Therapy (2012) 19, 169-175; doi:10.1038/gt.2011.

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether pet own

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether pet ownership modulates cardiac autonomic nervous activity imbalance in patients with lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. A total of 191 patients (mean age 69 +/-

8 years) were interviewed about their pet ownership status and were classified into pet owner and nonowner groups. After recording a 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram for heart rate variability analysis, frequency-domain and nonlinear-domain analyses were performed to determine the high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, LF/HF ratio, and entropy. The heart Kinase Inhibitor Library in vitro rate variability parameters were assessed for 24 hours, during the day (8.00 A.M. to 5.00 P.M.), and during the night (0:00 A.M. to 6.00 A.M.), and compared between the 2 groups. To evaluate the potential predictive factors for cardiac autonomic imbalance, univariate and multivariate analyses of HF and LF/HF were conducted for potential confounding variables. The pet owner group exhibited significantly greater HF24h, HFday, HFnight, entropy(24h), entropy(day), and entropy(night) and significantly lower LF/HF24h and LF/HFnight compared to the nonowner group. On multivariate analysis, pet Y-27632 Cell Cycle inhibitor ownership was independently and positively associated with HF24h, HFday, and HFnight and inversely associated with LF/HF24h

and LF/HFnight. In conclusion, these results suggest that pet ownership is an independent modulator of cardiac autonomic imbalance in patients with lifestyle-related diseases. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (Am J Cardiol 2012;109:1164-1170)”
“Glycopeptide-based analysis is used to inform researchers about the glycans on one or more proteins. AZD8055 inhibitor The method’s key attractive feature is its ability to link glycosylation information to exact locations (glycosylation sites) on proteins. Numerous applications for glycopeptide analysis are known, and several examples are described herein. The techniques used to characterize glycopeptides are still emerging, and recently, research focused on facilitating

aspects of glycopeptide analysis has advanced significantly in the areas of sample preparation, MS fragmentation, and automation of data analysis. These recent developments, described herein, provide the foundation for the growth of glycopeptide analysis as a blossoming field. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 12: 10.1074/mcp.R112.026567, 893-901, 2013.”
“Background. A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we examined the effects of an alcoholic FH on cognitive and emotional functions in these patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).\n\nMethod.

05) Similarly, Intervention II students consumed more fruit and v

05) Similarly, Intervention II students consumed more fruit and vegetables at school than Control students by 0.42 serving/d,

although this difference was not statistically significant Among students in both intervention groups, preferences for certain fruit and vegetables shifted from ‘never tried it’ towards ‘like it’\n\nConclusions The NFVPP resulted in positive changes in elementary school-aged children’s fruit and vegetable consumption at school, and favourable preference changes for certain fruit and vegetables.”
“Introduction. click here Shift-work determinates irregular nutrition habits. The quality as well as the quantity of meals consumed by shift-workers can significantly affects their health. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits of people performing shift work in the Bogdanka mine. Material and Methods. The study was carried out in the Bogdanka mine in Leczna. The questionnaire, which was designed by the author of this dissertation, was conducted among 700 shift-workers, working underground. The results were

subjected to statistical analysis based on STATISTICA v. 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland) software. Results. Nearly half of respondents reported regular consumption of meals (40.0%) Interviewees admitted having warm meals during the day (81.4%). The most frequently consumed meal during the day was the hot one (50.9%), three meals and more were consumed the least frequently (8.1%). Almost half of respondents considered their eating habits as inappropriate (46.3%). Among those, nearly half (68.2%) stated that shift work is the reason for AZD5582 their nutrition habits. More than half of respondents (66.0%) admitted that shift work hampers regular consumption of meals. Conclusions. Shift work makes nourishment and regular consumption

difficult. It contributes to the limited amount of warm meals eaten during the day. In order to maintain preventive health care and the improvement of quality of life, buy GDC-0068 shift workers should be provided with an easier access to meals (including warm one) at specified times of the day.”
“Acylated chitosan was synthesized by reaction of chitosan and stearoyl chloride. The chemical structures and physical properties of the prepared Compounds were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric (TG) techniques. The degree of substitution (DS) was calculated by (1)H NMR and ranged from 1.8 to 3.8. The synthesized compounds exhibited an excellent solubility in organic solvents. XRD analysis showed that they had high crystalline structure. TG results demonstrated that thermal stability of the prepared compounds was lower than that of chitosan, the weight loss decreased with increase of DS. This procedure could be a facile method to prepare organic-soluble chitosan derivatives. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.