8 There is also evidence demonstrating that dysregulated LPCs possess tumor-initiating ability in vivo, which suggests that LPCs may participate in hepatocarcinogenesis.9, 10 Our most current study showed that LPCs in HBx knockin mice could be transformed and develop bilineage liver cancer in the presence of 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC).11 Therefore, whether malignant transformation of LPCs in the persistent cirrhotic microenvironment this website could initiate HCC deserves exploration. Transforming growth
factor β (TGF-β) is the most potent hepatic profibrogenic cytokine predominantly produced by activated mesenchymal cells upon chronic liver damage.12 Moreover, Talazoparib price TGF-β has also been reported as a multifunctional cytokine that exerts its biological effects on tissue and organ development, cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis.13 In the liver, TGF-β is hypothesized to serve as the important link among chronic injury, cirrhosis, and HCC.14 Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that TGF-β modulates the expression of numerous genes relevant to tumor development.15 It has been assigned a central role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which is a critical cellular
event during tumor metastasis.16 It has been well established that HCCs usually occur in those cirrhotic livers where TGF-β is highly expressed compared with healthy controls, which suggests a possible pro-oncogenic role of TGF-β in HCC initiation.17 Although the mechanism remains to be defined, TGF-β seems to be very important in HCC occurrence in patients with
cirrhosis. In this study we investigated the influence of hepatic TGF-β on the transition of LPCs to T-ICs and the underlying molecular mechanism. medchemexpress The results provide new insight into hepatic T-ICs-targeted HCC prevention and therapy. AFP, alpha fetal protein; AKT, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog; α-SMA, alpha smooth muscle actin; CSC, cancer stem cell; DEN, diethylnitrosamine; FOXO3a, forkhead family of transcriptional regulators subfamily O, 3a; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; LPC, liver progenitor cell; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10; TGF-β, transforming growth factor beta; T-IC, tumor initiating cell. Thirty male Wistar rats and 20 male C57BL/6 mice were purchased from Shanghai Experimental Center of Chinese Academy of Science and maintained under pathogen-free conditions. The hepatocarcinogenesis model in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injections of diethylinitrosamine (DEN; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) once a week at 70 mg/kg for 10 weeks. Two rats were sacrificed biweekly thereafter to monitor HCC development. All of the remaining rats were sacrificed 22 weeks after the first DEN administration.