However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the
maturation process. By generating a conditional knockout (cKO) of Dicer1 in the proximal part of the mouse epididymis, we studied the role of RNA interference in epididymal functions. The Dicer1 cKO epididymis displayed an altered lipid homeostasis associated with a 0.6-fold reduction in the expression of the gene elongation of very long chain fatty acids-like 2, an enzyme needed for production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Furthermore, the expression of several factors involved in cholesterol synthesis was up-regulated. Accordingly, the Dicer1 cKO sperm membrane showed a 0.7-fold decrease in long-chain PUFAs, GSK461364 solubility dmso whereas the amount of cholesterol in acrosome-reacted sperm displayed a 1.7-fold increase.
The increased cholesterol:PUFA ratio of the sperm membrane caused breakage of the neck and acrosome region and immotility of sperm. Dicer1 cKO mice sperm also displayed reduced ability to bind to and fertilize the oocyte in vitro. This study thus shows that Dicer1 is critical Cediranib chemical structure for lipid synthesis in the epididymis, which directly affects sperm membrane integrity and male fertility.”
“The present study was aimed at determining whether
human recombinant hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) ameliorates cerebral edema induced by microsphere embolism (ME). Rats were injected with 700 microspheres (48 mu m in diameter). Continuous administration of HGF at 1:3 mu g/3 days/animal Cyclosporin A inhibitor into the right ventricle was started from 10 min after embolism to the end of the experiment by using an osmotic pump. On day 3 after the ME, the rats were anesthetized, and their brains were perfused with an isotonic mannitol solution to eliminate constituents in the vascular and extracellular spaces. Thereafter, tissue water and cation contents were determined. A significant increase in tissue water content of the right hemisphere by ME was seen. This ME-induced increase in water Content was associated with increases in tissue sodium and calcium ion contents and decreases in tissue potassium and magnesium ion contents of the right hemisphere.