Retrospective review of LVHN data from the ACSBSCN database was a

Retrospective review of LVHN data from the ACSBSCN database was analyzed for 30-day readmissions due to documented extra- or intraluminal hemorrhage with INR and coagulopathy. Follow-up INR and warfarin doses were collected up to 6 months postoperatively.

Over a 3-year period, 38 patients undergoing bariatric procedures were identified as being on preoperative warfarin therapy. Six of 38 developed hemorrhage within 30 days. Two patients presented beyond 30 days with bleeding. Supratherapeutic INR was present in five of six readmitted patients. Mean INR was 5.8. Warfarin sensitivity was present in a statistically significant higher number of patients within 30 days of surgery. After 30 days, a

resistance to warfarin Adavosertib price was demonstrated.

Bariatric surgery patients taking warfarin are prone to coagulopathy in the early post-op period requiring vigilant monitoring to prevent supratherapeutic INR and corresponding risk of hemorrhage.”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate the efficacy, cycle control, tolerability, and safety of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) in comparison

with drospirenone and ethinyl E2.

METHODS: In a randomized, open-label, comparative multicenter trial, healthy women (n=2,281; age 18-50 years) at risk for pregnancy and in need of contraception were allocated in a 3: 1 ratio to receive nomegestrol acetate (2.5 mg) LY3039478 datasheet and 17 beta-E2 (1.5 mg) in a 24-4-day regimen (investigational drug) or drospirenone (3.0 mg) and ethinyl E2 (30 micrograms) in a 21-7-day regimen (comparator) for 13 consecutive, 28-day cycles. The primary end point was the Pearl Index.

RESULTS: The Pearl Indices for 18- to 35-year-old women in the investigational (n=1,375) and comparator (n=463) groups were 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-2.22) and 1.89 (95% CI 0.69-4.11), respectively. Respective 1-year cumulative pregnancy rates were 1.22 (95% CI 0.69-2.16) and 1.82 (95% CI 0.81-4.05). By the end of the trial, shorter, lighter scheduled bleeding or an absence

Fedratinib purchase of scheduled bleeding occurred with greater frequency (32.9%) in the investigational group, whereas unscheduled bleeding or spotting episodes were low (16.2% and 15.0% in the investigational and comparator groups, respectively). Acne prevalence decreased from approximately 33% at baseline to 22% and 14% at cycle 13 in the respective groups. In the investigational group, the most frequently reported adverse events were acne (16.4%), weight gain (9.5%), and irregular withdrawal bleeding (9.1%).

CONCLUSION: Nomegestrol acetate and 17 beta-E2 were well tolerated and provided excellent contraceptive efficacy and acceptable cycle control.”
“BACKGROUND: Ketones and aldehydes are important organic chemicals as intermediates for the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industries.

(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;236:674-676)”

(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;236:674-676)”

Selleckchem GSK126 in biological analyses has several advantages, such as sample volume reduction and fast response time. The integration of miniaturized biosensors within lab-on-a-chip setups under flow conditions is highly desirable, not only because it simplifies process handling but also because measurements become more robust and operator-independent. In this work, we study the integration of flow amperometric biosensors within a microfluidic platform when analyte concentration is indirectly measured. As a case study, we used a platinum miniaturized glucose biosensor, where glucose is enzymatically converted to H2O2 that is oxidized at the electrode. The experimental results produced are strongly coupled to a theoretical analysis of fluid dynamic conditions affecting the electrochemical response of the sensor. We verified that the learn more choice of the inlet flow rate is a critical parameter in flow biosensors, because it affects both glucose and H2O2 transport, to and from the electrode. We identify optimal flow rate conditions for accurate sensing at high time resolution. A dimensionless theoretical analysis allows the extension of the results to other sensing systems according to fluid dynamic similarity principles. Furthermore, we developed a microfluidic design that connects a sampling unit to the biosensor, in order to decouple the sampling flow rate

from that of the actual measurement. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []“
“Background: Tariquidar supplier Analysis

of variance (ANOVA), change-score analysis (CSA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) respond differently to baseline imbalance in randomized controlled trials. However, no empirical studies appear to have quantified the differential bias and precision of estimates derived from these methods of analysis, and their relative statistical power, in relation to combinations of levels of key trial characteristics. This simulation study therefore examined the relative bias, precision and statistical power of these three analyses using simulated trial data.

Methods: 126 hypothetical trial scenarios were evaluated (126 000 datasets), each with continuous data simulated by using a combination of levels of: treatment effect; pretest-posttest correlation; direction and magnitude of baseline imbalance. The bias, precision and power of each method of analysis were calculated for each scenario.

Results: Compared to the unbiased estimates produced by ANCOVA, both ANOVA and CSA are subject to bias, in relation to pretest-posttest correlation and the direction of baseline imbalance. Additionally, ANOVA and CSA are less precise than ANCOVA, especially when pretest-posttest correlation >= 0.3. When groups are balanced at baseline, ANCOVA is at least as powerful as the other analyses.

These results suggest that RD1504 is the best Th1-stimulating ant

These results suggest that RD1504 is the best Th1-stimulating antigen

present in RD15, and therefore may be a potential vaccine candidate against TB.”
“Kinases AG-881 solubility dmso are heavily pursued pharmaceutical targets because of their mechanistic role in many diseases. Small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs) are a compound class that includes marketed drugs and compounds in various stages of drug development. While effective, many SMKIs have been associated with toxicity including chromosomal damage. Screening for kinase-mediated toxicity as early as possible is crucial, as is a better understanding of how off-target kinase inhibition may give rise to chromosomal damage. To that end, we employed a competitive binding assay and an analytical method to predict the toxicity of SMKIs. Specifically, we developed a model based on the binding affinity of SMKIs to a panel of kinases to predict whether a compound tests positive for chromosome damage. As training data, we used the binding affinity of 113 SMKIs against a representative subset of all kinases (290 kinases), yielding a 1136290 data matrix. Additionally,

these 113 SMKIs were tested for genotoxicity in an in vitro micronucleus test (MNT). Among a variety of models from our analytical toolbox, we selected using cross-validation a combination of feature selection and pattern recognition techniques: Kolmogorov-Smirnov/T-test hybrid as a univariate filter, followed by Random Forests for feature selection and Support Vector Machines (SVM) for pattern recognition. Feature selection identified 21 kinases predictive

of MNT. Using see more the corresponding binding affinities, the SVM could accurately predict MNT results AICAR in vivo with 85% accuracy (68% sensitivity, 91% specificity). This indicates that kinase inhibition profiles are predictive of SMKI genotoxicity. While in vitro testing is required for regulatory review, our analysis identified a fast and cost-efficient method for screening out compounds earlier in drug development. Equally important, by identifying a panel of kinases predictive of genotoxicity, we provide medicinal chemists a set of kinases to avoid when designing compounds, thereby providing a basis for rational drug design away from genotoxicity.”
“Thymofibrolipoma is an extremely rare tumor in the anterior mediastinum, and represents a histologic variant of the usual thymolipoma. Herein, we report a case of thymofibrolipoma in a 9-year-old girl who had a huge mass with fatty attenuation in the right hemithorax on chest computed tomography. She denied any subjective symptoms except mild fever. The surgically resected tumor was ovoid, soft and well-encapsulated, measuring 9.0 x 7.5 x 7.0 cm. The cut surface was light tan in color with yellowish streaks. Microscopically, two distinct areas were admixed in different proportions.

001) 2 03(1 27-3 24), 4 53(2 60-7 90), 3 59(1 95-6 60)

001) 2.03(1.27-3.24), 4.53(2.60-7.90), 3.59(1.95-6.60).

Conclusion: Among males in the United States Navy relative higher levels of CRF are associated with higher levels of HRQOL.”
“Free-standing films of polypyrrole doped with p-toluene sulfonate (PPy/pTS) were electropolymerized galvanostatically at different deposition current densities and their electrochemomechanical deformation (ECMD) properties were measured in situ during cyclic voltammetry experiments. It was found that films exhibiting a higher cation-driven actuation strain were generated when a lower current density was used in electropolymerization, which also led to an increase

in PPy conductivity and doping level. A decrease in cation-driven strain

with time was observed in all cases due to a loss of pTS anions from the films. Raman, FTIR, and elemental analyses 17DMAG were used to characterize the films grown at different deposition GSK461364 current densities and no sign of excessive overoxidation was found. SEM images revealed that the morphology of the films was affected by the current density during electropolymerization. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 111: 876-882, 2009″
“New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a common comorbidity after renal transplantation. Though metformin is the first-line agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in renal transplant recipients, check details metformin is frequently avoided due

to concerns about renal dysfunction and risk for lactic acidosis. Therefore, alternative first-line agents for the treatment of NODAT in renal transplant recipients are needed. Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, has a low incidence of hypoglycemia, is weight neutral, and, in a small study, did not affect immunosuppressant levels. However, long-term sitagliptin use for the treatment of NODAT in kidney transplant recipients has not been studied. We retrospectively analyzed renal transplant recipients diagnosed with NODAT and treated with sitagliptin to assess safety and efficacy. Twenty-two patients were started on sitagliptin alone. After 12 months of followup, 19/22 patients remained on sitagliptin alone with a significant improvement in hemoglobin A1c. Renal function and immunosuppressant levels remained stable. Analysis of long-term followup (32.5 +/- 17.8 months) revealed that 17/22 patients remained on sitagliptin (mean hemoglobin A1c < 7%) with 9/17 patients remaining on sitagliptin alone. Transplant-specific adverse events were rare. Sitagliptin appears safe and efficacious for the treatment of NODAT in kidney transplant recipients.”
“Purpose: To investigate how life situation by persons with advanced colorectal cancer and their partners is affected by living with the disease and its treatment.

“Study Design Pain behavior assessment in rats following

“Study Design. Pain behavior assessment in rats following disc puncture (DP) and simultaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibition.

Objective. To assess GSK2126458 clinical trial if treatment with TNF inhibition could reduce the pain behavior changes induced by DP in the rat.

Summary of Background Data. Anular tears with leakage of nucleus pulposus have been suggested to be one possible cause of low back pain (LBP). In an experimental model, it was recently

shown that DP might induce specific pain behavior changes. The aim of the present study was to a study if inhibition of TNF might reduce such pain behavior changes.

Methods. Sixty rats underwent facetectomy and puncture of the fourth lumbar disc. The rats were simultaneously treated with doxycycline locally at 0.3

and 3.0 mg/kg and systemically at 3.0 mg/kg, or infliximab locally at 0.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, and systemically at 5.0 mg/kg, (n = 10 for each subseries). The rats were videotaped at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after surgery. The videos were analyzed regarding presence of wet-dog shakes (WDS). Data from a previous study with sham surgery and DP without treatment were included for comparison.

Results. All groups treated with selleck doxycycline resulted in a statistically significant reduction of WDS compared to the group without treatment (DP). In infliximab treated animals, WDS decreased with statistically significance compared to the nontreated DP group at all analyzed days except for the group with high dose local treatment where a statistically significant reduction was obtained only at days 14 and 21.

Conclusion. The present study showed that TNF inhibition induced a marked reduction of wet dog shakes. It is not fully understood if wet-dog shakes may relate to LBP, but in view of recent clinical findings one may consider clinical studies of TNF inhibition for the treatment of LBP.”
“Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) have been commonly

used as pivotal immunosuppressive agents to renal transplant recipients and have contributed significantly to improving short-term allograft survival. However, long-term administration of CNI may cause an adverse effect on kidney function, known as chronic nephrotoxicity. Chronic CNI nephrotoxicity (CNI-NT) shows characteristic histopathological findings that involve arteriolar Adavosertib research buy hyalinosis. Recently, the term alternative arteriolar hyalinosis (aah) is used to discriminate CNI-specific arteriolar hyaline deposition from non-specific arteriolar hyalinosis. We studied whether arteriolar vacuolization represents an early lesion of aah as a predictor of CNI-NT. We retrospectively studied the 79 patients under treatment with a CNI immunosuppressant, who underwent living-related renal transplantation (RTx) from January 2007 to March 2009. We examined serial protocol graft biopsies at one h, one, six, and 12 months after RTx.

It is not clear, however, whether they reflect the same component

It is not clear, however, whether they reflect the same components of ANS activity. No study has examined the effects of physical training (PT) training on HRV, HRT, and HRR in CHF.

Study Objective: To examine the responses of HRV, HRT, and HRR to a PT program in patients presenting with CHF.

Methods: In 41 patients (mean age = 58.7 +/- 10.2 years) in New York Heart Association CHF functional classes II or III, and with a LY2835219 purchase left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, HRV, HRT, and HRR were measured before and after 8 weeks of PT.

Results: The training was clinically effective in all patients. Before versus after PT, standard deviation of all normal RR intervals increosed from 107 +/- 30 to 114 +/- 32 ms (P =

0.047), high frequency increased from 210 +/- 227 to 414 +/- 586 ms(2)/Hz (P = 0.02), and the low1high frequency ratio decreasedfroin 1.8 +/- 1.55 to 1.1 +/- 1.2 (P = 0.002). PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 HPT and HRR did not change significantly after PT.

Conclusions: In patients with GHF, the positive effects of PT were limited to HRV indices, which reflect parasympathetic activity, without significantly changing HRR and HRT. These observations indicate that different mechanisms modulate HRV, HRR, and HRT, which provide complementary information regarding ANS activity,

The 8-week PT program foiled to completely normalize ANS function. (PACE 2009; 32:S113-S115)”
“We have shown the full prevention of mesangial expansion in insulin-deficient diabetic rats by treatment with clinically-relevant dosages of glibenclamide (Glib). Studies in mesangial cells (MCs) also demonstrated reduction in the high glucose (HG)-induced accumulation of collagens, proposing that this was due to increased catabolism. In the present study, we

investigated the signaling pathways that may be implicated in Glib action. Rat primary MCs were exposed to HG for 8 weeks with or without Glib in therapeutic (0.01 mu M) or supratherapeutic (1.0 mu M) concentrations. We found that HG increased collagen IV protein accumulation and PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression, in association with decreased cAMP generating capacity and decreased Bafilomycin A1 ic50 PKA activity. Low Glib increased collagen IV mRNA but fully prevented collagen IV protein accumulation and PAI-1 overexpression while enhancing cAMP formation and PKA activity. MMP2 mRNA, protein expression and gelatinolytic activity were also enhanced. High Glib was, overall, ineffective. In conclusion, low dosage/concentration Glib prevents HG-induced collagen accumulation in MC by enhancing collagen catabolism in a cAMP-PKA-mediated PAI-1 inhibition.”
“Although oocyte donation is widely practised, few interventions in this field are evidence based. The objective of this study was to describe the current practices for evaluation and treatment of oocyte donors and recipients worldwide. Through an IVF-focused website, an internet-based survey was addressed to physicians in IVF units worldwide.

This study was designed to elucidate the possible mechanisms unde

This study was designed to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these two electrophysiological profiles. Methods: Effects of representative torsadogenic agents and non torsadogenic drugs on IK(r), IK(s), IK(1), I(Na) and I(CaL) were studied in transfected HEK 293 cells using the path-clamp method as

well as in conscious beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys by telemetry. Results: Patch-clamp studies confirmed that torsadogenic molecules could be discriminated into at least two subgroups. The first subgroup can be defined as apparently pure blockers. The second subgroup can be defined as I(Kr) blockers with ancillary properties on sodium and/or calcium channels which counterbalance the I(Kr) MAPK inhibitor prolongation component. This discrimination is transposable to the telemetered cynomolgus monkey model in terms of QT prolongation but not to the telemetered beagle dog model. This latter inter-species difference could be related to the sympathetic/parasympathetic balance and could involve

reserve repolarisation dependent mechanisms. Discussion: The confirmation that torsadogenic drugs might have at least two different electrophysiological profiles should be taken CUDC-907 price into consideration in preclinical safety pharmacology studies because it increases the value of the cynomolgus monkey model in two particular situations: firstly when an NCE causes sympathetic activation and secondly, when an NCE exhibits a pure blocker pattern independently of its potency to block HERG channels. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Posterior spinal ligament pathology is becoming increasingly recognized as a significant cause of low back pain. Despite the growing clinical importance of interspinous ligament degeneration in low back pain click here patients, formal reliability studies for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of interspinous ligaments have not been performed. We proposed an MRI classification system for interspinous ligament degeneration and conducted a comprehensive reliability and reproducibility assessment. Fifty patients who had low back pain with or without leg discomfort (26 males and

24 females) with a mean age of 48.8 years (range 23-85 years) were studied. The classification for lumbar interspinous ligament degeneration was developed on the basis of the literature using mid-sagittal T1- and T2-weighted images. Three spine surgeons independently graded a total of 200 interspinous ligament levels. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed by kappa statistics. The frequency of disagreement was also identified. The intraobserver agreement was excellent in all readers (kappa range 0.840-0.901). The interobserver agreement was lower as expected, and was substantial to excellent (kappa range 0.726-0.818). Overall complete agreement was obtained in 87.8% of all interspinous ligament levels. A difference of 1, 2, and 3 grades occurred in 8.1, 3.0, and 1.1% of readings, respectively.

A patient with schizencephaly in the left perisylvian area and co

A patient with schizencephaly in the left perisylvian area and contralateral polymicrogyria had spastic hemiparesis on the right side, whereas another patient showed bilateral underdevelopment of the opercula in association with axial hypotonia and spastic diplegia. Both of them had

epileptiform discharges on the electro-encephalogram without clinical manifestations of seizures. The magnetic resonance imaging of the third child with developmental language disorder was normal; however, his electroencephalogram showed frequent bilateral subclinical centrotemporal epileptiform discharges, probably responsible for the speech delay. Structural or functional involvement of the opercula bilaterally was a common finding in selleck products all the 3 patients and they had symptoms similar to those described in the developmental type of Foix-Chavany-Marie and Worster-Drought syndromes.”
“This study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant activities of a methanol extract from the polar microalgae Fragilariopsis pseudonana (FP) and to investigate the protective effect for gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 normal rat liver

epithelial cells. The results indicated that the methanol extract of FP (FPM) scavenged ABTS free radicals and inhibited copper-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation selleck in a dose-dependent manner. Exposing HepG2 cells to FeSO4 increased intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and lipid peroxides, which was significantly reduced by treatment with FPM. Furthermore, FPM increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in cells. FPM recovered the hydrogen

peroxide (H2O2)-induced inhibition of GJIC and attenuated the phosphorylation of connexin 43 (Cx43) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). Taken together, these results demonstrated that FPM has antioxidant activity and protects against H2O2-induced inhibition of GJIC by blocking phosphorylation of Cx43 via activation Belnacasan research buy of ERK1/2.”
“This paper aims at providing an alternative analytical model, which would be more suitable than a previous one [C. Potel and M. Bruneau, J. Sound Vib. 313, 738 (2008)], to describe the mode coupling due to scattering on small one-dimensional irregularities (parallel ridges) of the surfaces of a fluid-filled waveguide. Both models rely on standard integral formulation and modal analysis, the acoustic field being expressed as a coupling between eigenmodes of a regularly shaped waveguide, which bounds outwardly the corrugated waveguide considered. But the model presented here departs from the previous one essentially because it starts from the integral formulation for the acoustic pressure field, the solution relying on a modal expansion, whereas the previous one starts from the inner product of the set of differential equations (which govern the acoustic pressure field) and the appropriate eigenfunctions, the solution being obtained from using a one-dimensional integral formulation.

5-mA/cm(2) current application, especially within F6 film Thus,

5-mA/cm(2) current application, especially within F6 film. Thus, it was concluded that Eudragit RL100 film (F6) could be further

evaluated for the transdermal application of zidovudine.”
“Introduction and objectives. It is still not clear whether the presence of a moderate patient-prosthesis mismatch after isolated aortic valve replacement can increase 30-day mortality. The aim of this study was to determine whether a moderate mismatch is an independent SNS-032 price predictor of early global or cardiac mortality after aortic valve replacement.

Methods. The study involved 272 adult patients (median age, 72 years; interquartile range, 66-76 years) undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement. Moderate mismatch was considered to be present if the projected indexed effective orifice area was 0.85 and >0.65 cm(2)/m(2). Severe mismatch was present if the projected indexed effective orifice area was <= 0.65 cm(2)/m(2). Follow-up to assess survival at 30 days was carried out in 100% of patients.

Results. find more Moderate mismatch was observed in 37.9% of patients. None had a severe mismatch. Multivariate analysis identified the following independent predictors of global mortality at 30 days: left ventricular ejection fraction <50% (P=.03) and age (P=.01). The same variables were identified as predictors of 30-day cardiac survival,

but at a higher level of statistical significance: left ventricular ejection fraction <50% (P=.006) and age (P=.008). The analysis did not identify moderate mismatch as a predictor of global or cardiac 30-day mortality in our study population.

Conclusions. Our findings indicate that the evidence that inserting a prosthesis of the measured size in a small aortic annulus compromises the patient’s survival is far from clear when the patient-prosthesis mismatch is moderate.”
“Objective: This study examined support service use and interest in support services among distressed family caregivers of patients recently entering comprehensive cancer care facilities.

Methods: Primary family caregivers of lung cancer patients (N=83) were recruited from three medical centers within 12weeks of the patient’s new visit to the oncology

clinic. All family caregivers were Duvelisib datasheet screened for psychological distress, and those reporting significant anxiety or depressive symptoms were eligible for this study. Caregivers completed a baseline assessment of support service use (i.e., use of mental health services and complementary and alternative medicine [CAM]) and interest in support services. Support service use was also assessed 3months later.

Results: Although all caregivers reported clinically meaningful distress, only 26% used mental health and 39% used CAM services during the 3-month study period. Patients’ receipt of chemotherapy was positively associated with caregivers’ mental health service use, whereas greater education and receiving assistance with caregiving tasks were associated with CAM use.

The results are of potential relevance to the field of phase tran

The results are of potential relevance to the field of phase transition

oxide electronics and further understanding of the transition mechanisms. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3619806]“
“Introduction: Automatic pacing threshold (AT) testing with threshold trending and output adjustment may simplify follow-up and improve cardiac rhythm device longevity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new right ventricular (RV) AT algorithm for implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) using RVcoil to Can evoked response sensing.

Method: Patients undergoing ICD, with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy device, implant, replacement, or upgrade were enrolled. A pulse generator emulator (Can) was temporarily placed in the device pocket. An external Rigosertib Cell Cycle inhibitor pacing system (Boston Scientific, St. Paul, MN, USA) with customized software was used for performing threshold tests and data acquisition. RV manual threshold and up to four AT tests using various pacing parameters were conducted. The threshold MK-4827 measurement and the capture detection performance of the RV AT tests were evaluated through comparison with visual examination of surface electrocardiogram.


Data from 43 patients were analyzed. A total of 158 AT tests were performed, in which 144 AT tests (91.1%) measured correct threshold values. No consecutive asystolic noncaptured beats were observed in any AT tests, and none of the AT tests resulted in incorrectly low threshold measurements. The difference between manual and AT measurements was -0.05 +/- 0.43 V. The accuracy for detecting capture and noncaptured beats were 95% and 99%, respectively.

Conclusion: The RVcoil to Can evoked response sensing

based RV AT algorithm can reliably measure pacing threshold for ICDs, including CRT-Ds. (PACE 2012; 35: 259-268)”
“Pharmacodynamic modeling has been increasingly used as a decision support tool to guide dosing regimen selection, both in the drug development and clinical Vorinostat mw settings. Killing by antimicrobial agents has been traditionally classified categorically as concentration-dependent (which would favor less fractionating regimens) or time-dependent (for which more frequent dosing is preferred). While intuitive and useful to explain empiric data, a more informative approach is necessary to provide a robust assessment of pharmacodynamic profiles in situations other than the extremes of the spectrum (e. g., agents which exhibit partial concentration-dependent killing). A quantitative approach to describe the interaction of an antimicrobial agent and a pathogen is proposed to fill this unmet need. A hypothetic antimicrobial agent with linear pharmacokinetics is used for illustrative purposes.