The purpose of this study was to provide

baseline data on

The purpose of this study was to provide

baseline data on the malaria vectors and to ascertain the possibility of successfully eliminating malaria using the existing conventional vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN).

Methods: Entomological surveys were undertaken during JNK-IN-8 October 2009. To determine species composition and distribution larval surveys were conducted across on the whole island. For malaria transmission studies, adult anophelines were sampled using human landing catches from two villages – one coastal and one inland.

Results: Five Anopheles species were found on Santa Isabel: Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles lungae, Anopheles solomonis, and Anopheles nataliae. Anopheles hinesorum was the most widespread species. Anopheles farauti was abundant, but found only on the coast. Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis were not found. Anopheles farauti was the only species found biting in the coastal village, it was incriminated as a vector in this study; it fed early in the night but equally so indoors and outdoors, and

had a low survival rate. Anopheles solomonis was the main species biting humans in the inland village, it was extremely exophagic, with low learn more survival rates, and readily fed on pigs.

Conclusion: The disappearance of the two major vectors, An. punctulatus and An. koliensis, from Santa Isabel and the predominance of An. hinesorum, a non-vector species may facilitate malaria elimination measures. Anopheles farauti was identified as the main coastal vector with An. solomonis as a possible inland vector. The behaviour of An. solomonis is novel as it has not been previously found biting humans in any numbers. Both species appear to be short-lived, a characteristic that will limit their transmission potential. The early night feeding

behaviour and a degree of outdoor biting seen in An. farauti and particularly in An. solomonis will require that their response to IRS and LLIN be closely monitored. In coastal villages, where large, favourable breeding sites allow for high numbers of An. farauti may BLZ945 mw require the addition of larval control to achieve elimination.”
“Some aliphatic carboxylic acids were used to produce chitosan (CS) salts by reaction with CS, and their antifungal activity against three kinds of phytopathogens was estimated by hypha measurement in vitro. The fungicidal assessment showed that all of the CS salts had excellent activity against the tested fungi. Their inhibitory indices were 41.15-64.15, 56.25-76.56, and 35.94-68.75% for Cladosporium cucumerinum (Ell.) et Arthur, Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey, and Fusarium oxysporum sp. Cucumis sativus L., respectively, at 1000 mu g/mL; these indices were higher than that of CS. It was confirmed that the amino groups’ protonation was important for the antifungal activity of CS derivatives.

In view of the lower photoluminescence efficiency of F8T2, we att

In view of the lower photoluminescence efficiency of F8T2, we attribute this improvement to the improved hole transport brought about by F8T2, though is surprising that 5% by weight, is enough to significantly improve the charge balance within the emissive layer. A detailed photophysics study was carried out for the neat polymers and their blends and no clear evidence for energy transfer between the components was found. This unanticipated devices performance VS-4718 nmr improvement points to the need of a deeper screening of available conjugated luminescent polymers. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3456997]“

aim of this study is to prospectively determine the factors contributing Y-27632 inhibitor to whether unaffected women from BRCA1/2 families reported that clinicians proposed psychological consultations and that they had attended these consultations during the genetic testing


MethodsA prospective study was performed on a national cohort, using self-administered questionnaires to determine the rates of proposal and use of psychological services at the time of BRCA1/2 test result disclosure (N=533) and during the first year after disclosure (N=478) among unaffected French women from BRCA1/2 families who had undergone genetic testing for BRCA1/2. Multivariate adjustment was carried out using logistic regression models fitted using generalized estimation equations, with the genetic testing centre as the clustering variable.

ResultsAt the time of BRCA1/2 test result disclosure, a psychological consultation was proposed by cancer geneticists to 72% and 32% of the carriers (N=232) and noncarriers (N=301), respectively (p<0.001). One year after disclosure, 21% of the carriers had consulted a psychologist, versus 9% of the noncarriers (p<0.001). Both the proposal and the uptake depended on the women’s BRCA1/2 mutation carrier status (proposal adjusted odds ratio

(AOR): 4.9; 95% confidence BYL719 purchase interval (CI) 3.4-7.2; uptake AOR: 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.0), their level of education (proposal AOR: 1.7; 95% CI 1.1-2.7; uptake AOR: 4.5; 95% CI 1.7-12.1) and the distress they experienced about their genetic test results (proposal AOR: 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.03; uptake AOR: 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.06)

ConclusionsDeterminants of the proposal/uptake of psychological consultations in the BRCA1/2 testing process highlight the need for inventive strategies to reach the different types of women’s profiles. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is an extremely rare malignancy derived from antigen-presenting cells, with 55 cases reported thus far. A standard treatment modality is still being debated. This report describes a 56-year-old female who presented with right tonsillar enlargement and right submandibular swelling for 6 months.

This can cause small, closely spaced particles to appear with a l

This can cause small, closely spaced particles to appear with a lateral orientation that is rotated by 90 degrees. Considering both real space and spatial frequency space we find that a reasonable and useful definition of lateral selleck chemicals resolution

of SICM is the smallest distance at which two small particles can clearly be resolved from each other in an image. We find that this resolution is approximately equal to three times the inner radius of the pipette tip opening. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3122007]“
“Background: This crossover study compared fiber-optic assessment of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) position in children using two LMA insertion techniques, i.e., standard and rotational.

Methods: BVD-523 supplier Seventy-eight ASA I children, aged 2.5 months to 10 years, undergoing elective cataract surgery were included in this study. LMA was inserted in random order using either standard or rotational technique, removed, and thereafter crossed over to alternate technique. Positioning of LMA was assessed using fiber-optic bronchoscope with each technique. Change in the incidence of fiber-optic assessment grades 1 and 2 between two insertion techniques was measured as the primary outcome. Secondary outcome measures studied were first-attempt

success rate, overall success rate, time for successful insertion, visual analogue scale for placement, complications, and maneuvers used to relieve airway obstruction.

Results: Incidence of fiber-optic grades 1 and 2 was 61.5% with standard technique and increased to 92.3% with rotational technique (P < 0.001, McNemar’s test) (RR 3.0, 95% CI 2.2-4.2). Median (IQR) fiber-optic grading was significantly better with rotational technique [2 (1-2)] as compared to standard technique [2 (2-3)], (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). First-attempt success rate was significantly higher (96.2%) with rotational technique compared

with standard technique (80.7%) (P = 0.04, McNemar’s test). Overall success rate (i.e., successful insertion with two attempts) was 100% with rotational technique see more compared with 89.7% with standard technique (P = 0.003, Fischer’s exact test). Time for successful insertion and incidence of complications were significantly lesser with rotational technique.

Conclusion: Rotational technique of LMA insertion in children is associated with better seating of LMA (as observed on fiber-optic assessment) compared with the standard technique. Also, it is associated with higher success rate and lower incidence of complications.”
“Genomic imprinting is a specialized transcriptional phenomenon that employs epigenetic mechanisms to facilitate parental-specific expression. Perturbations in parental epigenetic asymmetry can lead to the development of imprinting disorders, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome. DNA methylation is one of the most widely studied epigenetic marks that characterizes imprinted regions.

Acute cellular rejection leads to morbidity after heart transplan

Acute cellular rejection leads to morbidity after heart transplantation and invasive techniques are needed for its diagnosis. We investigated the presence of cardiomyocyte

apoptosis in transplanted hearts, its progression, its relationship with rejection, and the possibility that serological markers of apoptosis can be used to detect rejection noninvasively.

Methods. Overall, 130 endomyocardial biopsies obtained sequentially from 14 consecutive patients during the first 6 months following heart transplantation underwent histochemical AZD6094 concentration analysis. The degree of acute rejection was determined, myocyte apoptosis was assessed using the TUNEL method, and caspase-3 activity was measured. In the first 10 patients, soluble Fas, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (INF alpha) and interleukin 6 levels were determined in serum collected at biopsy.

Results. Apoptotic cells were

detected in 81.5% of biopsies. No significant correlation was found between the apoptotic index and either the degree of rejection or the time from transplantation; there was only a trend to higher values during prolonged episodes of rejection, which did not reach statistical significance. An inverse correlation was observed between the degree of rejection and the TNF alpha level (r(s)=-0.33; P=.003). There was no correlation with any other variable.

Conclusions. Cardiomyocyte loss due to apoptosis was observed in transplanted hearts, but no correlation was observed with either acute rejection or the time from transplantation. Our findings suggest

there could be an inverse correlation between rejection and the serum TNFa level. No serum parameter evaluated was regarded as EVP4593 suitable for the noninvasive diagnosis of acute rejection.”
“Background: Despite its importance in the central nervous system as a precursor for acetylcholine and membrane phosphatidylcholine, the role of choline in mental illness has been little studied.

Objective: We examined the cross-sectional association between plasma choline concentrations and scores of anxiety and depression symptoms in a general population PXD101 sample.

Design: We studied a subsample (n = 5918) of the Hordaland Health Study, including both sexes and 2 age groups of 46-49 and 70-74 y who had valid information on plasma choline concentrations and symptoms of anxiety and depression measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-the latter 2 as continuous measures and dichotomized at a score >= 8 for both subscales.

Results: The lowest choline quintile was significantly associated with high anxiety levels (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.69) in the fully adjusted (age group, sex, time since last meal, educational level, and smoking habits) logistic regression model. Also, the trend test in the anxiety model was significant (P = 0.007). In the equivalent fully adjusted linear regression model, a significant inverse association was found between choline quintiles and anxiety levels (standardized regression coefficient = -0.027, P = 0.045).

Finally, potential toxicities and research opportunities in this

Finally, potential toxicities and research opportunities in this field are discussed.”
“A retrospective analysis of a large, randomized clinical trial (Engage) assessed whether adjusting the start day of ovarian stimulation and/or day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger could minimize oocyte retrieval during weekends without adverse effects on clinical outcome. Patients received recombinant FSH/gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist regimens, selleck inhibitor with stimulation starting on day 2 or 3 of menses. HCG was administered when at least three follicles

of >= 17 mm were present on ultrasound scan or 1 day later. The frequency distribution of the day of reaching the HCG criterion relative to stimulation initiation was analysed to determine the optimal stimulation start day (cycle day 2 PFTα or 3) depending on the weekday at which menses started, to minimize weekend retrieval.

The number of oocytes retrieved and pregnancy rates were not affected by start day and/or delay in HCG administration in regularly ovulating women aged 18-36 years with bodyweight 60-90 kg, body mass index 18-32 kg/m(2) and menstrual cycle length 24-35 days. In recombinant FSH/GnRH antagonist regimens, it appears possible to minimize weekend oocyte retrieval by selecting the cycle day to initiate stimulation, day 2 when menses starts Friday-Tuesday, otherwise day 3 and if necessary in combination with a 1-day HCG delay. RBMOnline (C) 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Scaffold design parameters

including porosity, pore size, interconnectivity, and mechanical properties have a significant influence on osteogenic signal expression and differentiation. This review evaluates the influence of each of these parameters and then discusses the ability of stereolithography (SLA) to be used to tailor scaffold design to optimize these parameters. Scaffold porosity and pore size affect osteogenic cell signaling and ultimately in vivo bone tissue growth. Alternatively, scaffold interconnectivity has Vadimezan molecular weight a great influence on in vivo bone growth but little work has been done to determine if interconnectivity causes changes in signaling levels. Osteogenic cell signaling could be also influenced by scaffold mechanical properties such as scaffold rigidity and dynamic relationships between the cells and their extracellular matrix. With knowledge of the effects of these parameters on cellular functions, an optimal tissue engineering scaffold can be designed, but a proper technology must exist to produce this design to specification in a repeatable manner. SLA has been shown to be capable of fabricating scaffolds with controlled architecture and micrometer-level resolution.

Once dermatophytosis had been excluded, a skin biopsy confirmed a

Once dermatophytosis had been excluded, a skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of GA. Although a clear mechanism remains still unknown, clinicians must take into consideration an association of GA in patients with T1D or AT to avoid unnecessary medical investigations and/or inadequate pharmacological treatment.”
“Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection and has endemic characteristics. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. The aim of this study was to present unusual clinical manifestations and to discuss the management and outcome of a series of 18 neurobrucellosis cases. Initial clinical manifestations consist of pseudotumor cerebri in one case,

white matter BVD-523 clinical trial lesions and demyelinating syndrome in three cases, intracranial granuloma in one case, transverse Neuronal Signaling inhibitor myelitis in two cases, sagittal sinus thrombosis in one case, spinal arachnoiditis in one case, intracranial vasculitis in one case, in addition to meningitis in all cases. Eleven patients were male and seven were female. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (83%) and fever (44%). All patients were treated with rifampicin, doxycycline plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ceftriaxone. Duration of treatment (varied 3-12 months) was determined on basis of the CSF response. In four patients presented

with left mild sequelae including aphasia, hearing loss, hemiparesis. In conclusion, although mortality is rare in neurobrucellosis, its sequelae are significant. In neurobrucellosis various clinical and neuroradiologic hypoxia-inducible factor pathway signs and symptoms can be confused with other neurologic diseases. In inhabitants or visitors of endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be kept in mind in cases that have unusual neurological manifestations.”
“Pilomatrixoma is a common benign neoplasm of children and young adults with a female predilection. In contrast, its malignant counterpart, pilomatrix carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of older adults with a male preponderance.

Pilomatrix carcinomas are locally aggressive with a tendency to recur. We report a case of a 44-year-old male who presented with an enlarging soft tissue tumor on the right upper back. Histology revealed an asymmetric, poorly circumscribed, lobulated neoplasm located deeply in the dermis with infiltration into the underlying subcutaneous tissue. The tumor was comprised of basaloid cells containing vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, scant cytoplasm, and brisk mitotic activity. A focus of basaloid cells transitioning to shadow cells with central keratinized material and tumor necrosis was also present. The diagnosis of a pilomatrix carcinoma was rendered. Considering the infiltrative nature of this neoplasm with perineural and intramuscular invasion, the patient underwent 3 surgical excisions before it was completely removed.”
“Cryoglobulinemia and non-organ-specific-autoantibody are biomarkers of autoimmunity of the chronic infection caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV).

When used alone, oral administration of tramadol may not provide

When used alone, oral administration of tramadol may not provide sufficient analgesic efficacy to treat dogs with pain after orthopedic surgical procedures.”
“The ideal system to allocate expanded criteria donors (ECD) kidneys has not been fully elucidated. In a previous retrospective study, we reported that donor clinical characteristics were more predictive of transplant outcome than biopsy findings. Subsequently, we decided to use ECD kidneys solely based on a clinical scoring system. To elucidate the value of the pre-transplant biopsy, the patients were divided in

two groups according to the suitability of the kidney they received for single or double transplantation as determined by a histological scoring system (HS). BI 6727 All kidneys were CCI-779 supplier transplanted as a single (vs. dual) transplant. We studied whether a HS of the pre-transplant biopsy was predictive of outcome of single transplant ECD kidneys. Recipients (n

= 48) were divided into two groups by whether the histologic system suggested single or double transplants be done. There were no differences between groups in two-yr outcomes. We conclude that a clinical scoring system can predict which ECD kidney donors can be safely used as single transplants in a cohort of low immunological risk de novo kidney transplant recipients. Use of the clinical scoring system maximizes organ use.”
“Diabetic autonomic bladder dysfunction is rare in the pediatric age group. An adolescent girl aged 16 years and 7 months, with type 1 diabetes mellitus since the age of 6 years, was diagnosed as having diabetic cystopathy. Ultrasonography of the urinary tract showed a distended bladder with normal kidneys. Laboratory evaluation revealed: normal serum urea, creatinine and electrolytes and elevated microalbuminuria. Urodynamic study demonstrated an impaired bladder

sensation, increased cystometric capacity, and detrusor arreflexia. Although more prevalent in adults and the elderly, autonomic bladder dysfunction must be considered in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.”
“In this paper, two microbial cultures with high decolorization efficiencies of reactive dyes were obtained and were proved to be dominant with fungi consortium in which 21 fungal strains were isolated and 8 of them showed significant decolorization effect to reactive red M-3BE. A 4.51 continuous biofilm reactor was established using the mixed cultures to investigate the decolorization performance and the system stability under the conditions of simulated and real textile wastewater as influents. The optimal nutrient feed to this bioreactor was 0.5 g l(-1) glucose and 0.1 g l(-1) (NH(4))(2)SO(4) when 30 mg l(-1) reactive black 5 was used as initial dye concentrations. Dye mineralization rates of 50-75% and color removal efficiencies of 70-80% were obtained at 12 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) in this case.

Our study included six populations contrasting in patch and popul

Our study included six populations contrasting in patch and population size (Large vs. Small) within a fragmented landscape ASP2215 supplier characterized by similar to 1% of potential forest coverage. The breeding system in Myrtus communis was self-compatible, but compared with natural pollination, fruit set increased with pollen addition (quantity limited), and seed set (brood size) increased with outcross pollen

addition (quality limited). While the pollinator assemblage in Large patches was taxonomically diverse, it was almost monopolized by honeybees in Small patches, where visitation rates were highest and wild bee species were almost absent. In general, Small populations were less pollen limited for fruit set than Large populations, particularly those that received the highest rates of honeybee visits. However, despite differences in fragmentation and pollinators between Large and Small populations, seed production patterns (brood size and seed mass) were rather similar among them, in agreement with similar pollen limitation levels found for brood size. A higher susceptibility of native pollinators to the presence of honeybee hives was found in Small patches, suggesting that the pollinator assemblage may be severely altered when fragmentation occurs in combination BMS-754807 with beekeeping. We discuss its implications and effects on plant

reproduction in fragmented areas. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

is a subacute or chronic fungal infection caused by the NVP-LDE225 chemical structure ubiquitous fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis is an uncommon entity and is usually present in the immunosuppressed. Here, a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This 70-year-old healthy woman presented with multiple painful ulcerated nodules on her face and upper and lower extremities of 6-month duration, associated with low-grade fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, and loss of weight. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy revealed epidermal hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with budding yeast. Fungal culture identified S. schenckii. She had total resolution of the lesions after 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 months of oral itraconazole. All investigations for underlying immunosuppression and internal organ involvement were negative. This case reiterates that disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis, although common in the immunosuppressed, can also be seen in immunocompetent patients. (C) 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Marine protected areas can enhance fish stocks within their boundaries, but the circumstances in which they might also supplement stocks or enhance fisheries outside their boundaries are less clear.

Follicle size on Day 1, 2 and 8 was smaller in C than in SW (p =

Follicle size on Day 1, 2 and 8 was smaller in C than in SW (p = 0.05). Ovulation rate was similar, but C sows Danusertib solubility dmso had higher embryo survival rate (ESR) than SW sows (83 +/- 19 and 58 +/- 31%, respectively; p = 0.001). SW sows with low ESR (<63%; n = 10) had a greater follicle size on days 36 than SW sows with high ESR (>63%; n = 10; p = 0.04). A decrease in follicle size between Day 5 and 6 of altrenogest feeding was associated with increased ESR in both treatments (p = 0.002). Follicle pool analyses (assessment of all follicles >2 mm) revealed that on Day 3, sows with low ESR had a higher % of follicles >5 mm compared with sows

with high ESR (30% vs 10%; p = 0.04). Thus, sows in which follicle growth was less suppressed during altrenogest feeding had a lower ESR. These effects on follicle development and ESR were more pronounced in split-weaned sows.”
“Purpose of review

Despite advanced medical and device-based therapies, congestive heart failure (CHF) remains a major medical problem, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in CHF and

is associated with poor outcomes. In this manuscript we review the evidence linking vitamin D deficiency and CHF and discuss potential mechanisms involved, as well the clinical data on vitamin D supplementation BMS-777607 in vitro in CHF patients.

Recent findings

A clear relationship has been established between Vitamin D deficiency and increased mortality and morbidity in CHF. However, the mechanism involved is not clearly understood. Recent clinical and experimental evidence have identified the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and inflammatory cytokines as likely mediators that can lead to poor clinical outcomes via the cardiorenal syndrome. Clinical data on vitamin D supplementation also remain unestablished, with potential clinical benefits recently reported in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Nonetheless, large-scale randomized clinical trials are lacking.



D is an emerging agent with tremendous potential and may represent a novel target for therapy in CHF. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanism(s) involved Selleckchem Nepicastat in the pathophysiology as well as to adequately examine the role of Vitamin D measurement and supplementation in patients with CHF.”
“Contents The Fas antigen is a transmembrane receptor that can trigger apoptosis in a variety of somatic cells. Ovarian follicular atresia and luteolysis are thought to occur by apoptosis. To reveal the intracellular signal transduction molecules involved in the process of follicular development in the bovine ovary, Fas gene without the stop codon was amplified in the present study using RT-PCR and directly cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pAcGFP-N1. The resultant recombinant plasmid pAcGFP-bFas was then transfected into bovine follicular granulosa cells.


The new OACs

represent a major advance


The new OACs

represent a major advance for patients with atrial fibrillation with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cardioembolic stroke.”
“PreS1 is a hypothetical candidate domain of L protein for hepatitis B virus (HBV) to adhere to and invade host hepatic cells. This report deals with the expression and purification of recombinant adw2 subtype of the preS1 peptide of hepatitis B virus surface antigen in Escherichia coli. The DNA GDC-0068 molecular weight fragments of the full-length or N/C terminal sequence of preS1 synthesized by PCR were inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pGST-MOLUC, respectively. Reconstitute plasmids (named pGST-preS1, pGST-preS1N, and pGST-preS1C) were confirmed by sequencing analysis and

transferred into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Recombinant full-length and N/C terminal of preS1 with GST tag were expressed at high levels in soluble form after induction with IPTG. The recombinant proteins were purified by a single-step affinity chromatography method. The immune reactivity of recombinant preS1 was confirmed by Western blot and virus capture assay. Furthermore, when the purified recombinant protein was used to immunize rabbit, the specific antibody titer can reach 10(-7). Thus, our successful expression system and achievement of purified recombinant preS1 protein and its polyclonal antibody lay the foundation for better understanding of the mechanism

VS-4718 price of HBV PreS1 protein in virus endocytosis and are helpful in seeking the PreS1-related protein.”
“Objective. Selleck Y27632 To characterize two groups of asthmatics who had achieved remission and those who had not achieved remission of asthma. Methods. The study was a retrospective cohort study based on 117 asthmatic children who participated in a previous study. We categorized the children into two groups: asthmatics with remission versus asthmatics without remission. We defined remission of asthma as lack of symptoms/signs of asthma or asthma-related medications or health care services for at least three consecutive years. Long-term remission was defined by no relapse of asthma after achieving remission. We characterized these groups. Results. Of the 117 subjects, 70 (60%) were male, 91 (78%) were Caucasians, and the mean age at index date of asthma was 8.1 years. A total of 59 asthmatic children (50%) achieved remission and 28 asthmatics (24%) achieved long-term remission. Asthmatics with remission were more likely to be Caucasian (87%) compared to those without (69%) (p = .039) There were no differences in the frequency of visits for viral (0.3 vs. 0.4 per person-years, p = .29) or bacterial infections (0.7 vs. 0.5 per person-years, p = .49) between asthmatics with and without remission.