Now, we summarize the data of soluble tumor necrosis factor-like<

Now, we summarize the data of soluble tumor necrosis factor-like

weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK), a new cardiovascular biomarker identified by proteomic analysis. Decreased sTWEAK concentrations have been shown in patients with carotid atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral artery disease, or chronic kidney disease (CKD). sTWEAK predicted adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure, myocardial infarction, and CKD. Finally, different drug regimens were able to modify sTWEAK plasma levels in patients with CKD. Although sTWEAK seems so far to fulfill the requisites in the development of a new biomarker, more large-scale studies are warranted to consolidate its usefulness.”
“Spinal cord ischemia is a potentially devastating complication after thoracic endovascular aorta repair (TEVAR). Patients with spinal cord ischemia after TEVAR often this website develop paraplegia, which is considered irreversible, and have significant increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a patient with unusual late complete neurologic recovery of acute-onset paraplegia after TEVAR for an infected thoracic aortic aneurysm. (J Vasc Surg 2013;57:521-4.)”
“Purpose: ACY-241 mw We have investigated the use of human urine as a non-invasive medium to screen for

molecular biomarkers of carcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal (uGI) tract using SELDI-TOF-MS.

Experimental design: A total of 120 urine specimens from 60 control and 60 uGI cancer patients were analysed to Demeclocycline establish a potential biomarker fingerprint for the weak cation exchanger CM10 chip surface, which was validated by blind testing using a further 59 samples from 33 control and 26 uGI cancer patients.

Results: Using Biomarker Pattern software, we established a model with a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 95% for the learning sample set, and a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72% for the validation

data set. Model variable importance included six peptides with m/z of 10 230, 10 436, 10 574, 10 311, 10 467, and 1 0118 of which the 10 230 molecular species was the main decider (sensitivity 86% and specificity 80%). Initial protein database searching identified 10 230 as S100-A6, 10 436 as S100-P, 10 467 as S100-A9, and 10 574 as S100-A12 of which S100-A6 and S100-A9 were confirmed by Western blotting.

Conclusions and clinical relevance: We have demonstrated that SELDI-TOF-MS as a screening tool is a rapid and valid methodology in the search for urinary cancer biomarkers, and is potentially useful in defining and consolidating biomarker patterns for uGI cancer screening.”
“Background: An increasing number of abdominal aortic aneurysms with unfavorable proximal neck anatomy are treated with standard endograft devices. Skepticism exists with regard to the safety and efficacy of this practice.

In the cohorts comprising Indians and Bangladeshis, the risks of

In the cohorts comprising Indians and Bangladeshis, the risks of death from mTOR inhibitor any cause and from causes other than cancer or cardiovascular disease

were increased among persons with a BMI of 20.0 or less, as compared with those with a BMI of 22.6 to 25.0, whereas there was no excess risk of either death from any cause or cause-specific death associated with a high BMI.


Underweight was associated with a substantially increased risk of death in all Asian populations. The excess risk of death associated with a high BMI, however, was seen among East Asians but not among Indians and Bangladeshis.”
“Asthma in older people is common and is characterised by underdiagnosis and undertreatment. Ageing is associated with unique issues that modify expression, recognition, and treatment of the disease. In particular, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) both overlap and

converge in older people. This concurrence, together selleck compound with absence of precise diagnostic methods, makes diagnosis complex. A multidimensional assessment that addresses airway problems, comorbidities, risk factors, and management skills will draw attention to key needs for intervention. Increased attention to the complications of asthma and obstructive airway disease in older people is needed, specifically to develop effective systems of care, appropriate clinical practice guidelines, and a research agenda that delivers improved health outcomes.”

An outbreak of tuberculosis occurred over a 3-year period in a medium-size community in British Columbia, Canada. The results of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping suggested the outbreak was clonal. Traditional contact tracing did not identify a source. We used whole-genome sequencing and social-network analysis in an effort to describe the

outbreak dynamics at a higher resolution.


We sequenced the complete genomes of 32 Mycobacterium tuberculosis outbreak isolates and 4 historical isolates Doxacurium chloride (from the same region but sampled before the outbreak) with matching genotypes, using short-read sequencing. Epidemiologic and genomic data were overlaid on a social network constructed by means of interviews with patients to determine the origins and transmission dynamics of the outbreak.


Whole-genome data revealed two genetically distinct lineages of M. tuberculosis with identical MIRU-VNTR genotypes, suggesting two concomitant outbreaks. Integration of social-network and phylogenetic analyses revealed several transmission events, including those involving “”superspreaders.”" Both lineages descended from a common ancestor and had been detected in the community before the outbreak, suggesting a social, rather than genetic, trigger.

The visual cortex provides a crucial sensory input to


The visual cortex provides a crucial sensory input to

the hippocampus, and is a key component for the creation of spatial memories. An understanding of how visual cortical neurons respond with synaptic plasticity to visual experience, and whether these responses influence the induction of hippocampal plasticity, is fundamental to our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms and functional consequences of visuospatial information processing. In this review. we summarize recent findings with regard to the expression of dynamic synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex and how this plasticity may influence information processing in the hippocampus. NEUROSCIENTIST 14(6):584-597, 2008. DOI: 10.1177/1073858408315655″
“The formation of memories relies in part on plastic changes at synapses between neuronsa Although the mechanisms of synaptic selleck inhibitor plasticity have been studied extensively over several decades, many aspects of this process remain controversial. The cellular locus of expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) a major form of synaptic plasticity, is one of the most find more important unresolved phenomena. In this article,

some recent advances in this area made possible by the development of new imaging tools are summarized. These studies have demonstrated that LTP is compound in nature and consists of both presynaptic and postsynaptic components. Some features of presynaptic and postsynaptic changes during compound LTP are also reviewed.

NEUROSCIENTIST 14(6):598-608, 2008. DOI: 10.1177/1073858408320643″
“Many aspects of synaptic development, plasticity, and neurotransmission are critically influenced by NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Moreover, dysfunction of NMDARs has been implicated in a broad array of neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, stroke, epilepsy, and neuropathic pain. Classically, NMDARs were thought to be exclusively postsynaptic. However, substantial evidence in the past 10 years demonstrates that NMDARs also exist presynaptically and that presynaptic NMDA receptors (preNMDARs) modulate synapse Idelalisib molecular weight function and have critical roles in plasticity at many synapses. Here the authors review current knowledge of the role of preNMDARs in synaptic transmission and plasticity, focusing on the neocortex. They discuss the prevalence, function, and development of these receptors, and their potential modification by experience and in brain pathology. NEUROSCIENTIST 14(6): 609-625, 2008. DOI: 10.1177/1073858408322675″
“It is well established that brain ischemia can cause neuronal death via different signaling cascades. The relative importance and interrelationships between these pathways, however, remain poorly understood. Here is presented an overview of studies using oxygen-glucose deprivation of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia.

By means of this procedure, approximately 80 mg purified fusion p

By means of this procedure, approximately 80 mg purified fusion protein out of I L E. coli culture were obtained. Digestion with

TEV protease yielded the C2-like domain that was further purified using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Alternatively, the uncleaved fusion protein MBP-5LO1-128 may be suitable to immobilize the C2-like domain on an amylose resin for co-factor interaction studies. Together, we present a convenient expression and purification strategy of the 5-LO C2-like domain that opens many possibilities for structural determination Selleckchem Acalabrutinib and mechanistic studies, aiming to reveal the precise role and function of this regulatory domain. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In natural vision, attention and eye movements are linked. Furthermore, eye movements structure the inflow of information into the visual system. Saccades, where little vision occurs, alternate with

fixations, when most vision occurs. A mechanism must be in place to maximize information intake during fixations. Oscillatory synchrony has been proposed as a mechanism for rapid and reliable communication of signals, subserving cognitive functions such as attention and object identification. We propose that saccade-related corollary activity has a crucial role in anticipatory preparation of visual centers, which interacts with ongoing oscillation, favoring the processing of postfixational signals. During prolonged fixations, microsaccades could be generated to exploit this mechanism. Studying this interplay between the sensory and the motor system will provide novel insight into the dynamics of natural vision.”
“Fibroblasts Lazertinib in vivo differ in a variety of phenotypic features, including the expression of Thy-1 Diflunisal a glycophosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein.

Fibroblasts in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are Thy-1 negative, whereas most fibroblasts from normal lungs are Thy-1 positive. However, the functional consequences of the absence of Thy-1 are not fully understood. We analyzed the expression of Thy-1 in several primary fibroblasts lines derived from IPF, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), and normal human lungs. We found that a high proportion, independently of their origin, expressed Thy-1 in vitro. We identified a primary culture of HP fibroblasts, which did not express Thy-1, and compared several functional activities between Thy-1 (-) and Thy-1 (+) fibroblasts. Thy-1 (-) fibroblasts were smaller (length: 41.3 +/- 20.8 mu versus 83.1 +/- 40 mu), showed increased proliferative capacity and enhanced PDGF-induced transmigration through collagen I (59.9% versus 42.2% over control under basal conditions, P<0.01). Likewise, Thy-1 (-) fibroblasts either spontaneously or after TGF-beta stimulation demonstrated stronger contraction of collagen matrices (eg, 0.17 +/- 0.03 versus 0.6 +/- 0.05 cm(2) after TGF-beta stimulation at 24 h; P<0.01).

Scalp and earlobe references were compared

Results -

Scalp and earlobe references were compared.

Results. -Although amplitude variability itself was not reduced, a reduced coefficient of variation was obtained with the 128-channel method due to higher SEP amplitudes, compared to the conventional one-channel. method, independent of reference.

Conclusion. -These results suggest that at the cost of some additional preparation time, the 128-channel method can measure SEP amplitude more accurately and might therefore be more sensitive to physiological

and pathological changes.

For optimal amplitude estimation, we recommend to increase the number of centroparietal Caspase Inhibitor VI solubility dmso electrodes or, preferably, to perform at least a 64-channel recording. (C) 2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Aim of the study. -To determine whether or not chemosensory event-related brain potentials (CSERP) elicited by nociceptive unilateral intranasal (CO2) trigeminal stimulation are lateralized and, selleckchem if they are, whether this hemispheric lateralization is related to the side of the stimulated nostril.


-Nine healthy right-handed subjects participated to the study. CSERPs were recorded after left or right monorhinal CO2 stimulation. Latency and baseline-to-peak amplitude of each CSERP component were compared across stimulation conditions (left and right nostril), scalp locations (lower-frontal, frontal, mid-temporal, central, posterior-temporal, parietal) and hemispheres (left

or right), using a three-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures.

Results. -Intranasal trigeminal CO2 stimulation elicited a large N400-P550 complex. This complex was preceded by an earlier N300 component. Whatever the stimulated nostril, N300, N400 and P550 amplitudes were significantly higher on the right as compared to the left hemisphere, at lower-frontal recording sites. The side of chemosensory stimulation (left or right nostril) did not significantly affect CSERP components.

Conclusions. -This study showed that in healthy right-handed volunteers with normal olfactory ability, intranasal chemosensory trigeminal stimulation may elicit a series of event-related brain potentials, which all display a significant right-hemisphere Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) predominance, irrespective of the stimulated nostril. The observed lateralization was maximal at lower-frontal recording sites. (C) 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The value of various indexes to characterize the stimulus-response curve of human motor nerves was assessed in 40 healthy subjects recruited from four European centers of investigation (Creteil, Lausanne, Liege, Marseille). Stimulus-response curves were established by stimulating the right median and ulnar motor nerves at the wrist, with stimulus durations of 0.

Although antisaccade performance, which reflects the ability to i

Although antisaccade performance, which reflects the ability to inhibit prepotent responses, is a putative schizophrenia endophenotype, researchers have not consistently reported the expected differences between first-degree relatives and comparison groups. Schizophrenia participants (n=219) from the large Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) sample (n=1078) demonstrated

significant deficits on an overlap version of the antisaccade task compared to their first-degree relatives (n=443) and community comparison subjects (CCS; n=416). Although mean antisaccade performance of first-degree relatives was intermediate between schizophrenia participants and CCS, a linear mixed-effects model adjusting for group, site, age, and gender found LXH254 no significant performance differences between the first-degree relatives and CCS. However, admixture analyses showed that two components best explained the distributions in all three groups, suggesting two distinct doses of an etiological factor. Given the significant

heritability of antisaccade performance, the effects of a genetic polymorphism is one possible explanation of our results.”
“Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes not only sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, Ralimetinib price but frequently also severe chronic pain that is difficult to treat (SCI pain). We previously showed that hyperesthesia, as well as spontaneous pain

Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase induced by electrolytic lesions in the rat spinothalamic tract, is associated with increased spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in the posterior thalamic nucleus (PO). We have also demonstrated that rodent impact SCI increases cell cycle activation (CCA) in the injury region and that post-traumatic treatment with cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors reduces lesion volume and motor dysfunction. Here we examined whether CCA contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability of PO and hyperpathia after rat contusion SCI, as well as to microglial and astroglial activation (gliopathy) that has been implicated in delayed SCI pain. Trauma caused enhanced pain sensitivity, which developed weeks after injury and was correlated with increased PO neuronal activity. Increased CCA was found at the thoracic spinal lesion site, the lumbar dorsal horn, and the PO. Increased microglial activation and cysteine-cysteine chemokine ligand 21 expression was also observed in the PO after SCI. In vitro, neurons co-cultured with activated microglia showed up-regulation of cyclin D1 and cysteine-cysteine chemokine ligand 21 expression. In vivo, post-injury treatment with a selective cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CR8) significantly reduced cell cycle protein induction, microglial activation, and neuronal activity in the PO nucleus, as well as limiting chronic SCI-induced hyperpathia.

Comparison of the plasma Hsp70 and Hsp27 levels of the 4 groups r

Comparison of the plasma Hsp70 and Hsp27 levels of the 4 groups revealed that only the plasma Hsp70 level of VMCI patients (14.11 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that of NCI subjects (11.32 ng/ml), MCI patients (10.16 ng/ml), and patients with probable AD (10.16 ng/ml) after adjustment of age, sex, and education (F=4.231, d.f. = 3, p = 0.008). Furthermore, there was no difference in plasma Hsp27 levels among the 4 groups. These findings suggest that the plasma Hsp70 level may be related to vascular factors or inflammation. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Antimicrobial prophylaxis

is the periprocedural systemic administration of an antimicrobial agent intended to reduce the risk of postprocedural local and systemic infections. The AUA convened a BPP Panel to formulate recommendations on the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis during urologic surgery.

Materials and Methods: Recommendations are based on a review of the literature and the Panel members’ expert opinions.

Results: The potential benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis

is determined by patient factors, procedure factors, and the potential morbidity of infection. Antimicrobial BAY 80-6946 chemical structure prophylaxis is recommended only when the potential benefit outweighs the risks and anticipated costs (including expense of agent and administration, risk of allergic reactions or other adverse effects, and induction of bacterial resistance). The prophylactic agent should be effective against organisms characteristic of the operative site. Cost, convenience,

and safety of the agent also should be considered. The duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis should extend throughout the period when bacterial invasion is facilitated and/or likely to establish an infection. Prophylaxis should begin within 60 minutes of the surgical incision (120 minutes for intravenous fluoroquinolines and vancomycin) and generally should be discontinued within 24 hours. The AHA no longer recommends antimicrobial prophylaxis for genitourinary surgery solely to prevent infectious endocarditis. Justifications and recommendations for specific antimicrobial prophylactic regimens for specific categories of urologic procedures are provided.

Conclusions: The recommendations PAK5 provided in this document, including specific indications and agents enumerated in the Tables, can assist urologists in the appropriate use of periprocedural antimicrobial prophylaxis.”
“Purpose: We compared the clinical benefits of eradicating traditional accepted uropathogens and nontraditional uropathogens (gram-positive bacteria other than enterococci) in prostate specific specimens in men kith clinical prostatitis.

Materials and Methods: Men with prostatitis-like symptoms and any bacteria localized to prostate specific specimens were treated with levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin for 4 weeks with 6 months of followup.

Feasibility of this technique has been shown in the first clinica

Feasibility of this technique has been shown in the first clinical experiences, and the early results are promising. However, it is clear that percutaneous

valve replacement therapy is still at the early stage of development and requires enhanced implantation procedures and substantial design improvements as well as long-term follow-up to show the safety and effectiveness of this new treatment modality.”
“Purpose: We confirm the single site observation of decreased sialylation and abnormal glycosylation of Tamm-Horsfall protein in patients with interstitial cystitis compared to control subjects.

Materials and Methods: Urine samples from 41 controls and 48 patients with interstitial cystitis from a total of 5 North Milciclib American sites were obtained in blinded fashion as to participant find more status. Tamm-Horsfall protein was isolated from urine samples by salt precipitation. Protein content was determined by size exclusion chromatography and normalized to creatinine. Sialic acid was quantified by 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylene dioxybenzene (Sigma (R)) high performance liquid

chromatography with fluorescence detection. Neutral and amino sugars were determined by high pH anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. N-glycans were labeled with 2-aminobenzamide and profiled using high pH anion exchange chromatography with fluorescence detection. Samples were also analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Permethylated N-glycans were analyzed in the mass-to-charge ratio range of 3,000 to 6,000.

Results: There was no difference in the protein-to-creatinine ratio of Tamm-Horsfall protein from patients with interstitial cystitis vs controls (49.12 vs 46.4 mg/gm, p = 0.26). Sialic acid content (67 vs 77 nmol/mg Tamm-Horsfall Dapagliflozin protein, p = 0.025) and total monosaccharide content (590.9 vs 680.6 nmol/mg Tamm-Horsfall protein,

p = 0.003) were significantly decreased in patients with interstitial cystitis vs controls. Results were supported by 2-aminobenzamide N-glycan profiling and mass spectrometry, which showed a 45% decrease in a major tetra-sialylated peak (mass-to-charge ratio 4,590) in Tamm-Horsfall protein from patients with interstitial cystitis compared to controls.

Conclusions: These multisite data validate that abnormal glycosylation of Tamm-Horsfall protein occurs in patients with interstitial cystitis and may have a role in interstitial cystitis causation.”
“The ratio of fatty acids namely linoleic acid (LA, 18:2, n-6) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3) in the diet plays an important role in enrichment of ALA in tissues and further conversion to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3).

The alpha’E polypeptide was purified by simple conventional bioch

The alpha’E polypeptide was purified by simple conventional biochemical techniques to make it available this website for biological assays. Human hepatoma cell lines (Hep G2) were used to monitor the uptake and degradation of labeled low-density lipoproteins (LDL), according to an established procedure. The LDL uptake (+86%) and degradation (+94%) by cells tested at the highest alpha’E dose (2 mu M) were similar to those found in cells incubated with 1 mu M simvastatin, a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. Additionally, the cell response

to alpha’E was found to be dose-dependent. The present findings strongly suggest that this recombinant polypeptide, or a fragment thereof, is the molecular determinant for cholesterol homeostasis and open new prospects for understanding the mechanism involved in this biological

response, as a gateway to its utilization in lipid-lowering therapies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The preprotein translocase of the inner membrane of mitochondria (TIM23 complex) is the main entry gate for proteins of the matrix and the inner membrane. Tim50 is a major receptor in TIM23 complex, which spans the inner membrane with a single transmembrane segment and exposes a large hydrophilic domain in the intermembrane space. In this study, we expressed and purified the intermembrane space (IMS) domain of human Tim50 (Tim50(IMS)), and investigated its selleck screening library structural characteristics and assembly behaviors. The far-UV CD spectra of Tim50(IMS) in native and denatured states revealed that the protein has a significantly folded secondary structure consisted of alpha-helixes and beta-sheets. Size exclusion chromatography showed that Tim50(IMS) is a monomer. Furthermore, the results showed, by intrinsic fluorescence, ANS binding, fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence quenching, that Tim50(IMS) forms a compact structure in the range of pH 8.0-5.0; and it is more compact at pH 8.0 than pH 7.0; when pH decreases below

5.0, the protein is gradually denatured. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Preventing protein aggregation is crucial for Edoxaban various protein studies, and has a large potential for remedy of protein misfolding or aggregates-linked diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the hyper-acidic protein fusion partners, which were previously reported to enhance the soluble expression of aggregation-prone proteins, could also significantly prevent aggregation (or improve the solubility) of disease-associated and amyloid/fibril-forming polypeptides such as TEL-SAM and A beta 42 in Escherichia coli cells. Further and most importantly, the solubility of all poorly soluble target proteins examined was greatly elevated by their corresponding highly soluble hyper-acidic fusion cognates when they were co-expressed, in despite of a concomitant compromise of the cognates’ solubility.

“Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn’s diseas

“Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract with excessive production of cytokines, adhesion molecules, and reactive oxygen species. Although nitric oxide (NO) is reported to be involved

in the onset and progression of IBDs, it remains controversial as to whether NO is toxic or protective in experimental colitis. We investigated the effects of oral nitrite BMS202 mouse as a NO donor on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis in mice. Mice were fed DSS in their drinking water with or without nitrite for up to 7 days. The severity of colitis was assessed by disease activity index (DAI) observed over the experimental period, as well as by the other parameters, Temozolomide solubility dmso including colon lengths, hematocrit levels, and histological scores at day 7. DSS treatment induced severe colitis by day 7 with exacerbation in DAI and histological scores. We first observed a significant decrease in colonic nitrite levels and increase in colonic TNF-alpha expression at day 3 after DSS treatment, followed

by increased colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and increased colonic expressions of both inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) at day 7. Oral nitrite supplementation to colitis mice reversed colonic nitrite levels and TNF-alpha expression to that of normal control mice at day 3, resulting in the reduction of MPO activity as well as iNOS and HO-1 expressions in colonic tissues with clinical and histological improvements at day 7. These results suggest that oral nitrite inhibits inflammatory process of DSS-induced experimental colitis by supplying nitrite-derived NO instead of impaired Tau-protein kinase colonic NOS activity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“RNA molecular modelling is adequate to rapidly tackle the structure of RNA molecules. With new structured RNAs constituting a central class of cellular regulators discovered every year, the need for swift and reliable modelling

methods is more crucial than ever. The pragmatic method based on interactive all-atom molecular modelling relies on the observation that specific structural motifs are recurrently found in RNA sequences. Once identified by a combination of comparative sequence analysis and biochemical data, the motifs composing the secondary structure of a given RNA can be extruded in three dimensions (3D) and used as building blocks assembled manually during a bioinformatic interactive process. Comparing the models to the corresponding crystal structures has validated the method as being powerful to predict the RNA topology and architecture while being less accurate regarding the prediction of base-base interactions. These aspects as well as the necessary steps towards automation will be discussed.”
“Computational tools for prediction and design of DNA and RNA structures are used for different approaches in nucleic acid research.