80 ± 28 2 −16 8 109 9 0 166 43 0 ANPs 147 6 ± 22 7 250 6 ± 27 2 1

80 ± 28.2 −16.8 109.9 0.166 43.0 ANPs 147.6 ± 22.7 250.6 ± 27.2 103.0 39.6 0.245 15.81 Control 149.4 ± 18.2 319.9 ± 30.3 170.5 0.0 0.291 0.0 n = 30. aInhibition rate of tumor volume = (Differences in mean tumor volume between the beginning and end of treatment group) / (differences in mean tumor volume between the begin and end of control group) × 100%. bThe tumor weight was measured at 35 days after administration. cInhibition rate of tumor weight = (Differences in mean tumor weight between treatment group and

control group) / (Mean tumor weight of control group) × 100%. *Significant difference compared with gemcitabine group, p < 0.05. Figure 3 Neoplastic mass comparison among different treatment groups. After being excised from the PANC-1-induced nude mice tumor model following their scarification at the end of the experiments. Vorinostat molecular weight A 110-nm GEM-ANPs, B 406-nm- GEM-ANPs, C gemcitabine, D ANPs, and E control. Histological analysis of tumor masses after various treatments for 5 weeks was performed by H & E staining; the proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells were also determined by immunohistochemical assay on Ki-67 protein and TUNEL assay, as shown in Figure 4. H & E staining confirms that the tumor cell proliferation and division

are more active in the control group than in other groups. In addition, Ki-67 protein immunohistochemical assay indicates that the proliferation index of tumor cells in 110-nm GEM-ANP (36.4 ± 8.1%), 406-nm GEM-ANP (25.6 ± 5.7%), and gemcitabine (38.4 ± 9.4%) groups are lower than that in the blank ANP and control group, with significant difference (p < 0.05). At the same time, TUNEL assay reveals that the apoptotic index see more of tumor cells in the 406-nm GEM-ANP (38.5 ± 17.2%) group is significantly higher than that in the 110-nm GEM-ANP (33.6 ± 11.2) and gemcitabine

(32.2 ± 9.7%) groups (Figure 4). Figure 4 Histological analysis of neoplastic masses by H & E staining, Ki-67 protein, and TUNEL assay after being excised from the PANC-1-induced nude mice tumor model following their scarification at the end of the experiments. A 110nm-GEM-ANPs, B 406-nm-GEM-ANPs, C gemcitabine, D ANPs and E control. Discussion As one of the most lethal cancers, pancreatic cancer is still a frequently occurring disease and remains Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase a therapeutic challenge to humans [18, 19]. Although gemcitabine is a currently and widely used drug in the therapy of pancreatic cancer, various approaches, such as drug delivery system, have to be tried to prolong the plasma half-life of gemcitabine and enhance its bioavailability [20, 21]. As the typical examples, liposome and carbon nanotube have been a success in delivering cancer drugs for pancreatic cancer treatment in recent animal and preclinical trials [19, 22]. Nowadays, a novel carrier system allowing for lower toxic side effects and higher tumor-targeting efficiencies is emphasized, while the high biosafety of the carrier system is also prerequisite [8, 10, 23].

33 Liu FH, Liao GQ, Wang HM: The curative effect observation of

33. Liu FH, Liao GQ, Wang HM: The curative effect observation of Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with chemotherapy for the late stage lung cancer. Journal of Third Military Medical University 2007, 29 (3) : 259–260. 34. Pan YK, Huang M, Qu M: Clinical observation of Shenqi fuzheng injection assisted with chemotherapy for the non-small cell lung cancer. Journal of Chinese Clinical Medical

RG7112 ic50 2008, 3 (4) : 43–45. 35. Zhen JH, Chen YF: Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with NP chemotherapy in treating elder late stage non-small cell lung cancer patients 42 cases. JiangXi Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2009, 40 (6) : 58–59. 36. Miao SR, Yang WH, Geng CH: Clinical observation of Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with NP chemotherapy in treating elder late stage non-small cell lung cancer. Chinese Journal of Practical Medicine 2010, 5 (11) : 16–17. 37. Li YQ, Zhou X, Zhang T, Chen HJ: The clinical study on reducing toxicity effect

of Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with NP chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Chinese Journal of New Drugs 2010, 19 (2) : 23–126. 38. Geng D, Cui JC, Ma L: The curative effect observation of Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with NP chemotherapy for the late stage non-small cell lung cancer. Chinese Journal of Practical Medicine 2007, 2 (5) : 57–59. 39. Zou Y, Bo YJ, Ruan PG: Clinical observation of Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with paclitaxel plus carboplatinum chemotherapy in treating patients with late stage non-small cell lung cancer. Chinese Journal of Practical selleck oncology 2005, 20 (3) : 260–262. 40. Luo SZ, Long JH, Yu XY: Clinical observation of Shenqi fuzheng injection

Sitaxentan combined with paclitaxel plus cisplatinum chemotherapy for late stage non-small cell lung. Journal of Chinese cancer research and clinic 2006, 18 (3) : 181–183. 41. Luo SW, Huang YP, Shan HL, Yang YW, Mo C, Wu XE: Clinical observation of middle and late stage non-small cell lung cancer treated with Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with paclitaxel plus carboplatinum. Chinese Journal of Clinical Oncology 2007, 12 (5) : 381–382. 42. Zhang FL: Clinical observation of middle and late stage non-small cell lung cancer treated with Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with paclitaxel plus carboplatinum. Journal of Chinese Modern Oncology 2008, 16 (7) : 1165–1166. 43. Zhao YX, Wang CY, Li J, Wang F: The curative effect observation of Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with paclitaxel plus carboplatinum for non-small cell lung cancer. Journal of Chinese misdiagnose 2009, 19 (21) : 5129–5130. 44. Yu F, Li K: Clinical observation of Shenqi fuzheng injection assisted with chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 2007, 21 (2) : 166–167. 45. He WJ, Zhao JQ: Clinical observation of Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with gemcitabine plus cisplatinum for late stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Murat D, Falahati V, Bertinetti L, Csencsits R, Kornig A, Downing

Murat D, Falahati V, Bertinetti L, Csencsits R, Kornig A, Downing K, Faivre D, Komeili A: The magnetosome membrane protein, MmsF, is a major regulator of magnetite biomineralization in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Mol Microbiol 2012, 85:684–699.PubMedCrossRef 18. Ding Y, Li J, Liu J, Yang J, Jiang W, Tian J, Li Y, Pan Y: Deletion of the ftsZ-like gene results in the production of superparamagnetic magnetite magnetosomes in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense . J Bacteriol 2010, 192:1097–1105.PubMedCrossRef 19. Tanaka M, Arakaki A, Matsunaga T: Identification and functional

characterization of liposome tubulation protein from magnetotactic bacteria. Mol Microbiol 2010, 76:480–488.PubMedCrossRef 20. 4EGI-1 Schüler D, Uhl R, Bäuerlein E: A simple light scattering method to

assay magnetism in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense PI3K Inhibitor Library research buy . FEMS Microbiol Lett 1995, 132:139–145.CrossRef 21. Roberts AP, Pike CR, Verosub KL: First-order reversal curve diagrams: A new tool for characterizing the magnetic properties of natural samples. J Geophys Res 2000,105(B12):28461–28475.CrossRef 22. Li J, Pan Y, Chen G, Liu Q, Tian L, Lin W: Magnetite magnetosome and fragmental chain formation of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1: transmission electron microscopy and magnetic observations. Geophys J Int 2009,177(1):33–42.CrossRef 23. Fischer H, Mastrogiacomo G, Löffler JF, Warthmann RJ, Weidler PG, Gehring AU: Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic characteristics of intact magnetosome Methisazone chains in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense . Earth Planet Sci Lett 2008,270(3–4):200–208.CrossRef 24. Li J, Pan Y, Liu Q, Zhang Y, Menguy N, Che R, Qin H, Lin W, Wu W, Petersen N, Yang X: Biomineralization, crystallography and magnetic properties of bullet-shaped magnetite magnetosomes in giant rod magnetotactic bacteria. Earth Planet Sci Lett 2010, 293:368–376.CrossRef 25. Li JH, Wu WF, Liu QS, Pan YX: Magnetic anisotropy, magnetostatic interactions and identification of magnetofossils.

Geochem Geophys Geosyst 2012,13(12):1–16.CrossRef 26. Li JH, Ge KP, Pan YX, Williams W, Liu QS, Qin HF: A strong angular dependence of magnetic properties of magnetosome chains: implications for rock magnetism and paleomagnetism. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 2013. doi:10.1002/ggge. 20228 27. Quinlan A, Murat D, Vali H, Komeili A: The HtrA/DegP family protease MamE is a bifunctional protein with roles in magnetosome protein localization and magnetite biomineralization. Mol Microbiol 2011,80(4):1075–1087.PubMedCrossRef 28. Siponen MI, Adryanczyk G, Ginet N, Arnoux P, Pignol D: Magnetochrome: a c-type cytochrome domain specific to magnetotatic bacteria. Biochem Soc Trans 2012,40(6):1319–1323.PubMedCrossRef 29. Frankel RB, Blakemore RP: Precipitation of Fe 3 O 4 in magnetotactic bacteria. Trans R Soc London Ser B 1984, 304:567–573.CrossRef 30. Zhang WJ, Chen CF, Li Y, Song T, Wu LF: Configuration of redox gradient determines magnetotactic polarity of the marine bacteria MO-1. Environ Microbiol Rep 2010,2(5):646–650.

2 % Temperature

2 %.Temperature CBL-0137 manufacturer of reaction: 60 °C for 18 h, mp: 172–174 °C (dec.). Analysis for C24H22N6O2S2 (490.60); calculated: C, 58.75; H, 4.52; N, 17.13; S, 13.07; found: C, 58.97; H, 4.51; N, 17.18; S, 13.10. IR (KBr), ν (cm−1): 3198 (NH), 3102 (CH aromatic), 2988, 1452, 759 (CH aliphatic), 1710 (C=O), 1605 (C=N), 1519 (C–N), 1329 (C=S), 693 (C–S). 1H NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ (ppm): 3.74 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.99 (s, 2H, CH2), 6.90 (d, J = 6 Hz, 2H, 2ArH), 7.32–7.56 (m, 10H, 10ArH), 7.57 (d, J = 6 Hz, 2H, 2ArH), 9.61, 9.66, 10.40 (3brs, 3H, 3NH). 4-Benzyl-1-[(4,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)sulfanyl]acetyl thiosemicarbazide (4h) Yield:

95.0 %. Temperature of reaction: 50 °C for 12 h, mp: 176–180 °C (dec.). Analysis for C24H22N6OS2 (474.60); calculated: C, 60.74; H, 4.67; https://www.selleckchem.com/products/GSK690693.html N, 17.71; S, 13.51; found: C, 60.77; H, 4.66; N, 17.78; S, 13.55. IR (KBr), ν (cm−1): 3209 (NH), 3087 (CH aromatic), 2971, 1439 (CH aliphatic), 1700 (C=O), 1611 (C=N), 1520 (C–N), 1351 (C=S), 689 (C–S). 1H NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ (ppm): 3.90 (s, 2H, CH2), 4.84 (s, 2H, CH2), 7.15–7.54 (m, 15H, 15ArH), 8.82, 9.54, 10.41 (3brs, 3H, 3NH). 13C NMR δ (ppm): 33.68 (–S–CH2–), 46.62 (–CH2–), 126.47, 127.12, 127.46, 127.83, 128.16, 128.51, 128.83, 129.83, 130.04 (15CH aromatic), 133.71, 134.71,

139.34 (3C aromatic), 151.95 (C–S), 154.32 (C-3 triazole), 166.79 (C=O), 182.09 (C=S). 4-(4-Methoxybenzyl)-1-[(4,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)sulfanyl]acetyl thiosemicarbazide (4i) Yield: 97.4 %. Temperature of reaction: 50 °C for 14 h, mp: 176–178 °C (dec.). Analysis for C25H24N6O2S2 (504.63); calculated: C, 59.50; H, 4.79; N, 16.65; S, 12.71; found: C, 59.61; H, 4.78; N, 16.68; S, 12.75. IR (KBr), ν (cm−1): 3222 (NH), 3102 CH (aromatic), 2973, 1448, 767 (CH aliphatic), 1697 (C=O), 1599 (C=N), 1514 (C–N), 1349 (C=S), 680 (C–S). 1H NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ (ppm): 3.76 (s, 3H, CH3), 4.01 (s, 2H, CH2), 4.74 (s, 2H, CH2), 6.86–7.64 (m, 14H, 14ArH), 8.33, 9.55, 10.44 (3brs, 3H, 3NH). 4-Ethoxycarbonyl-1-[(4,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)sulfanyl]acetyl

thiosemicarbazide (4j) Yield: 98.6 %. Temperature of reaction: 55 °C for 14 h, mp: 178–180 °C (dec.). D-malate dehydrogenase Analysis for C20H20N6O3S2 (456.54); calculated: C, 52.62; H, 4.41; N, 18.41; S, 14.05; found: C, 52.76; H, 4.42; N, 18.44; S, 14.01. IR (KBr), ν (cm−1): 3219 (NH), 3105 (CH aromatic), 2973, 1452, 765 (CH aliphatic), 1728 (C=O acidic), 1699 (C=O), 1608 (C=N), 1511 (C–N), 1338 (C=S), 691 (C–S).

g thiosulfate (Sox complex) or sulfide (sqr

fccAB), (2)

g. thiosulfate (Sox complex) or sulfide (sqr

fccAB), (2) adapt to temporal variation in the concentrations of sulfide, e.g. low sulfide (sqr) and high sulfide (fccAB), and (3) reverse the action of their enzymes, e.g. dsrB involves both the oxidative and the reductive mode of the dissimilatory sulfur metabolism. Sequences obtained in this study provide the molecular framework to detect the populations carrying relevant functions in future monitoring studies ( Additional file 1, Figures S7 and S 8). Recently safe and cost-effective approaches to inhibit or prevent corrosion have included https://www.selleckchem.com/products/iwp-2.html influencing the microbial population without the application of biocides by (1) supporting the establishment of competitive biofilms and (2) removing or adding electron acceptors such as nitrate [5, 70]. The addition of nitrate can stimulate the growth of competing bacterial populations (e.g. nitrate-reducing bacteria), which can effectively displace the SRB [71]. The success of these approaches must include a detailed analysis of the established Selleck Go6983 bacterial populations and functional capabilities of the microbial community in that

particular system. In fact, our data provide evidence of the effect of habitat selective factors on microorganisms and consequently their functional capabilities. For example, the diversity of the denitrification

genes nirK and nirS increased in habitats with relatively moderate and low levels of nitrate/nitrite, respectively [72]. Other corrosion control approaches Baf-A1 include commercially available coating techniques, for which limited data is available on their performance. The data from this study identified the potential bacterial groups and specific gene sequences that remediation approaches need to target to prevent microbial colonization of key concrete corrosion-associated microbiota. Conclusions In the present work, we analyzed wastewater concrete metagenomic and phylogenetic sequences in an effort to better understand the composition and function potential of concrete biofilms. The analyses unveiled novel insights on the molecular ecology and genetic function potential of concrete biofilms. These communities are highly diverse and harbor complex genetic networks, mostly composed of bacteria, although archaeal and viral (e.g., phages) sequences were identified as well. In particular, we provided insights on the bacterial populations associated with the sulfur and nitrogen cycle, which may be directly or indirectly implicated in concrete corrosion. By identifying gene sequences associated with them, their potential role in the corrosion of concrete can be further studied using multiple genetic assays.

Biometrics 1954, 10: 101–129 CrossRef 21 Mantel N, Haenszel W: S

Biometrics 1954, 10: 101–129.CrossRef 21. Mantel N, Haenszel W: Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 1959, 22: 719–748.PubMed 22. DerSimonian R, Laird N: Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 1986, 7: 177–188.CrossRefPubMed 23. Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C: Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997, 315: 629–634.PubMed 24. Pollak MN: Endocrine effects of IGF-I

on normal and transformed breast epithelial cells: potential relevance to strategies for breast cancer treatment and prevention. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1998, 47: 209–217.CrossRefPubMed 25. Olivecrona H, Hilding A, Ekström C, Barle H, Nyberg B, Möller C, Delhanty PJ, Baxter RC, Angelin B, Ekström TJ, Tally M: Acute and short-term effects of growth https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitor-2.html hormone on insulin-like growth factors and their Poziotinib cell line binding proteins: serum levels and hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid responses in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999, 84: 553–560.CrossRefPubMed 26. Chin E, Zhou

J, Dai J, Baxter RC, Bondy CA: Cellular localization and regulation of gene expression for components of the insulin-like growth factor ternary binding protein complex. Endocrinology 1994, 134: 2498–2504.CrossRefPubMed 27. Arany E, Afford S, Strain AJ, Winwood PJ, Arthur MJ, Hill DJ: Differential cellular synthesis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and IGFBP-3 within human liver. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994, 79: 1871–1876.CrossRefPubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions In our study, all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript. Each author’s contribution to the paper: BC: First author, background literature search, data analysis, development of final manuscript. JQW: Corresponding author, research instruction, data

analysis, development of final manuscript. learn more SL: background literature search, data analysis. WX: data analysis, background literature search. XLW: research instruction, background literature search. WHZ: research instruction, development of final manuscript.”
“Introduction The incidence of pancreatic carcinoma has increased in recent decades, yet the treatment outcome for this disease remains unsatisfactory. Despite the introduction of new therapeutic techniques combined with aggressive modalities, such as external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy, the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma remained to be very poor, with a mortality rate of more than 90% [1]. Only 15% to 20% of patients with pancreatic carcinoma are suitable for resection, and even with resection, long term survival still remains poor [2, 3]. Most of pancreatic carcinoma was diagnosed in the locally advanced or metastatic stage, and the median survival rate was approximately 6 months with palliative treatment.

33, 3 16, 2 90, 2 65, and 2 5, and of 3 32, 3 15, 2 91, 2 65, 2 4

33, 3.16, 2.90, 2.65, and 2.5, and of 3.32, 3.15, 2.91, 2.65, 2.49 eV, respectively (see Figure 3b,c). These results show that an increase in anodizing voltage from 100 to 115 V leads a rather equal amount of redshift in the position

of all the PL emissions, see for instance peaks 1 and 2 in Figure 3a,b. Figure 3 Fitted PL emission spectra of the aluminum oxide membranes of Figure 2 . The membranes are anodized at (a) 100, (b) 115, and (c) 130 V. In Figure 3a, the 415-nm peak reveals the maximum emission intensity. This emission wavelength is close to the beginning of the blue region. However, the maximum emission locates about 427 nm in Figure 3b,c, which is close to the middle of the blue region. This wavelength shift can slightly improve the PL activity of the membranes in the visible range. In Figure 3c, peak positions show negligible shift compared with Figure 3b. A tolerance error should be considered for selleck both PL measurement and graph fitting procedures because the fluorescence spectrophotometer precision lies at approximately 0.1 nm, and there exists a possibility of error in the fitting process. Consequently, it could be deduced that an increase in the anodizing voltage beyond 115 V has insignificant shifting

effect on the emission spectrum see more (see Figure 3b,c). These findings indicate that an increase in the anodizing voltage beyond 115 V cannot enhance the PL activity of the membranes

in the visible range. Most of the previous reports have related the PL properties of PAAO layers to the optical transitions within individual oxygen vacancies. However, there is a clear-cut distinction between their interpretations on the type of the oxygen vacancies. Some researches claim in their articles that the PL spectra are concerned to the singly ionized oxygen vacancies [12, 13, 15]. But others relate the spectra to both singly ionized and neural oxygen vacancies [11, 14]. Singly ionized oxygen vacancies are generally called F+ centers. These point defects form when an electron is trapped in a double ionized oxygen vacancy. Neutral oxygen vacancies are often called F centers. They can be formed if Lck two electrons are trapped in a double ionized oxygen vacancy. Our results could not confirm the interpretations of the first group; otherwise, our results would not agree with the results on crystalline Al2O3. According to Lee and Crawford studies on sapphire [19] and Evans and coworkers on crystalline α-Al2O3[20], if crystalline Al2O3 is excited under a 4.8 eV (260 nm) wavelength, it would emit UV PL radiation due to the F+ color centers at approximately 3.8 eV (326 nm). Only one PL emission about 3.8 eV is fitted out among our results (see the 323-nm peak in Figure 4c). But several visible emissions far greater than 323 nm are identified (Figure 3a).

After reduction of P•+ by an exogenous cytochrome c 2, P can be e

After reduction of P•+ by an exogenous cytochrome c 2, P can be excited again, leading to the transfer of a second electron to QB •− in a process that is coupled to the uptake of two protons. The generated hydroquinone QBH2 then carries the electrons and protons to the cytochrome bc 1 complex in a cycle that generates the proton gradient needed for the creation of energy-rich compounds. Fig. 1 (a) Cofactors in the bacterial photosynthetic RC from Rb. sphaeroides (PDB entry 1M3X; Camara-Artigas et al. 2002). (b) Structure of the primary donor of the RC from Rb. sphaeroides with the two BChl

a molecules PL and PM (phytyl chain truncated), and the three mutated residues His L168, Asn L170, and Asn M199 (PDB entry

1M3X; Camara-Artigas et al. 2002). (c) BI 6727 in vivo Molecular structure of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) with IUPAC Momelotinib nmr numbering; the two methyl groups 21 and 121 and the β-protons 7, 8, 17, and 18 are indicated The two BChls that form P overlap at the ring A position with a separation distance of 3.5 Å (see e.g., Allen et al. 1987; Yeates et al. 1988; Ermler et al. 1994; Stowell et al. 1997). Due to the close contact, the two BChls are electronically coupled and the wavefunction of the unpaired electron is distributed over the conjugated systems of both macrocycles. This has been shown by some of the earliest spectroscopic measurements on the RC, in which a dimeric structure was postulated for the primary donor (“special pair hypothesis”)(Norris et al. 1971; 1975; Feher et al. 1975). Electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR, and its advanced multiple resonance methods (ENDOR/TRIPLE) are well-suited for the detailed characterization of the electronic structure of P•+ by mapping the spin density distribution over the conjugated system. In wild type, the distribution most is asymmetric with more of the spin density being located on the L-side of P (PL) than the M-side (PM)(Geßner et al. 1992; Lendzian et al. 1993; Rautter et al. 1994; 1995; 1996; Artz et al. 1997; Müh et al. 2002; Lubitz et al. 2002). Due to the large number of protons in the BChl macrocycle

(Fig. 1c) that interact with the unpaired electron of P•+, the EPR spectrum shows just a single, unresolved line with a linewidth ΔB pp (peak-to-peak) of 9.6 G (Norris et al. 1971; McElroy et al. 1972; Feher et al. 1975). The linewidth is reduced as compared to that of monomeric BChl a •+ (~14 G at room temperature) due to the dimeric character of P•+ (Norris et al. 1971; 1975; McElroy et al. 1972; Feher et al. 1975; Lendzian et al. 1993). Details of the spin density distribution can be obtained by determination of the hyperfine couplings (hfcs) via electron nuclear double resonance, ENDOR (Kurreck et al. 1988; Möbius et al. 1982). If the radical–protein complex rotates fast enough to average out all anisotropic contributions of the hfc (and g) tensors only isotropic interactions remain.

(d) to (f) High-magnification images of each point in (c) clearly

(d) to (f) High-magnification images of each point in (c) clearly showing the density difference.

We also demonstrated that this method could be applied to the growth of CNTs on a designated area of released micromechanical structures. Typically, released and movable microstructures fail by stiction when the structures are exposed to a liquid, and thus, this demonstration was only possible because no wet process was involved in our proposed method. Figure 5 shows the CNTs synthesized on the released comb structures formed on a device layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. In Figure 5a, the CNTs were grown on a desired comb only, while the CNTs were grown in a band across multiple combs in Figure 5b. The insets in each figure are the close-up views of CNTs in red squares. Figure 5 CNTs on MEMS structure. The catalyst was deposited selectively on a comb structure parallel and perpendicular to the shadow mask. SEM images show AZD5582 manufacturer CNTs grown with the (a) parallel

and (b) perpendicular alignment between the shadow mask and the comb structure. The insets are the close-up views of the CNTs in red squares. Conclusions In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that the nanoparticles generated using the spark discharge method can be used successfully as catalysts for the growth of compound screening assay CNTs. The nanoparticles were transferred onto the desired area on a substrate by thermophoresis and were patterned using a shadow mask to realize patterned growth of CNTs. The nanoparticle deposition time determines the final density of the grown CNTs, and vertically aligned growth of CNTs was achieved after 10 min of

nanoparticle deposition in our experiment. An alternative approach to changing the density of CNTs was to change the gap between the shadow mask and the substrate, and a patterned line of CNTs with gradually varying density along the line could be formed by tilting the shadow mask. The proposed all-dry process could also be applied to completely fabricated micromechanical structures, as demonstrated by site-specifically growing the CNTs on the released high-aspect-ratio microstructures. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant BCKDHB funded by the Korean Government (MEST) (grant no. NRF-2011-0030206) and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012R1A1A2043661). References 1. Frank S, Poncharal P, Wang ZL, de Heer WA: Carbon nanotube quantum resistors. Science 1998, 280:1744.CrossRef 2. Tans SJ, Verschueren ARM, Dekker C: Room-temperature transistor based on a single carbon nanotube. Nature 1998, 393:49.CrossRef 3. Kong J, Franklin NR, Zhou C, Chapline MG, Peng S, Cho K, Dai H: Nanotube molecular wires as chemical sensors. Science 2000, 287:622.CrossRef 4. Murakami H, Hirakawa M, Tanaka C, Yamakawa H: Field emission from well-aligned, patterned, carbon nanotube emitters.

9 to 3 1 eV) semiconductor [1, 2], is of great interest

9 to 3.1 eV) semiconductor [1, 2], is of great interest Selleckchem IWP-2 for diverse technological applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics [3]. Zero-dimensional In2O3 nanoparticles (NPs), with a variety of tunable morphologies ranging from octahedra, hexagons, cubes, to pyramids, are beneficial

as building blocks for indium oxide-based or hybrid transistors [4]. Their remarkably large surface-to-volume ratio and good stability have made them promising materials in gas sensors/biosensors [5, 6], photocatalysis [7], photoelectrochemical cells [8], and ultraviolet photodetectors [9, 10]. Despite the advantages of using this material, In2O3 NP-based devices usually encounter several deficiencies, for instance, low conductivity and poor Go6983 adhesion. This could decrease the efficiency and stability of the devices. One of the reasons for the low conductivity of In2O3 NP-based devices is due to the weak interconnection between each NP [11, 12]. In this case, the carrier transportation between the In2O3 NPs is inefficient where charge carriers might

be lost at the interface due to recombination or charge delocalization. Meanwhile, the In2O3 NP coating is usually not adhesive, thus making it easier to be scratched from the substrate. Hence, in order to solve these problems, it is crucial to improve the microstructure arrangement of the In2O3 NPs. Several methods such as annealing and plasma treatments have been introduced to improve the structural selleckchem and electrical properties of In2O3 nanostructures [13–15]. A previous report [13] showed an increase in photoconductivity of undoped In2O3 thin films to about 102 (Ω cm)−1 by using a two-step thermal annealing method at an optimum temperature of ≤500°C. More recent research on femtosecond laser annealing of In2O3 nanowire transistors

revealed significant improvements in device performance owing to the reduction in interfacial traps by using the treatment [14]. On the other hand, oxygen plasma treatment [15] serves as an alternative treatment method to improve the surface contact of tin-doped In2O3 for light-emitting devices. By combining rapid thermal annealing and nitrous oxide (N2O) plasma treatment, Remashan et al. [16] demonstrated almost two orders of increment in off current and on/off current ratios of zinc oxide thin film transistors. A significant effort has been devoted to the advancement in synthesis and fabrication of In2O3 NPs using a variety of techniques including laser ablation, electron beam evaporation, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), pulsed laser deposition, sol-gel, and thermolysis [17, 18]. Of those, CVD is capable of high yield production and good crystallinity of In2O3 NPs [19]. The In2O3 NPs synthesized by this method typically have a higher purity level compared to those synthesized by wet chemical methods as the deposition is done under a certain vacuum level.