Cisplatin chemotherapy was administered as a 75 mg/m2 intravenous infusion each and every three weeks, for six cycles. Dexamethasone was admi nistered after day by day for 3 days immediately after chemotherapy. Ondansetron ACT, FAC and AC and total metabolic profile. Hormone /progesterone receptor and Human Epidermal Development Factor Receptor two receptor sta tus were performed locally. For the duration of treatment, these assessments had been performed within the identical method at the start off of each cycle, except radiological examination in the tumor which was carried out just after Cycle 2 and Cycle 6, and every three months thereafter. Response criteria and toxicity Goal tumor response charge, defined because the percentage of patients who achieved a total response or partial response by RECIST criteria, was the primary efficacy end level.
Radiological assessments have been carried out via computerized tomography at baseline, immediately after two cycles, just after 6 cycles and each 3 months thereafter. Secondary end points incorporated one particular 12 months survi val and toxicity. Security assessments included adverse events, clinical laboratory exams, ECOG patient safety and selleck chemical physical examinations and crucial indicators. Adverse events had been graded in accordance to your National Cancer Institute Com mon Toxicity Criteria, edition two. 0. Following comple tion of 6 cycles of cisplatin, the patient was noticed from the clinic every two weeks for eight weeks and every single four weeks thereafter. A repeat CT scan was completed at three month to month intervals to evaluate progressive disorder. Statistical evaluation The main aim of this examine was to find out the overall response price of cisplatin in metastatic breast can cer individuals by using a regarded BRCA1 mutation.
Secondary objectives for this study incorporated estimating the one particular, two and three yr costs of overall survival selleck as well as evaluation of toxicity. The intent to treat population was defined as all eligi ble individuals enrolled inside the research that had no main viola tions of protocol inclusion and/or exclusion criteria. The response rate was calculated as the quantity of responders divided through the number of patients enrolled. Survival was calculated employing the Kaplan Meier strategies. Individuals were followed from your date of initial acquiring cis platinum until eventually the date of very first evidence of progression, or even the date of death, according to the analysis. Benefits Patient qualities Among July 2007 and January 2009, 20 women were enrolled from the review.
No prospective patient was located to be ineligible or declined to participate. All examine patients had been tested previously to the presence of three BRCA1 founder mutations and had been identified to become constructive. Eighteen individuals were taken care of in Szczecin and two have been treated in Krakow. Patient qualities are summarized in Table 1. This patient population was notable for its younger age, predominance of 5382insC BRCA1 mutations, and predominance of triple damaging cancers.
On the 28 selected kinases in our targeted studies, PLK1 will be the foremost candidate, based mostly on its action in inhibiting cancer cell growth, and in par ticular, its activity against the TICs once silenced by siRNA or by the smaller molecule inhibitor, BI 2536. Fill additional and Kuperwasser reported that latest che motherapeutic agents for breast cancer, such as Taxol and 5FU, basically induced TICs. That is without a doubt the case for Taxol, Dox, and 5FU, under our check situations. On top of that, when these drug treatment options were followed with BI 2536, few cells survived, while they induced CD44high/CD24 /low cells below the experimental condi tions. Interestingly, Gleixner et al. recently reported that inhibiting PLK1 with BI 2536 could override imati nib resistance in continual myeloid leukemia.
Whether or not this can be related to the activity of PLK1 on TICs of your ailment remains for being explored. While PLK1 is the target of our study for its signifi cant development inhibition on breast cancer, availability of compact molecular inhibitors, as well as the safety data in clinical trials of various cancer therapy, a number of other lively kinases selleck chemicals PARP Inhibitors identified within this examine deserve even more review for his or her roles in TICs in breast cancer, such as SKP2 and PLAU, which inhibited the development of sorted CD44high/CD24 /low cells of SUM149. Certainly, uPA/PAI one is the only biomarker to get been conferred with LOE 1 being a definitive prognostic marker of poor ailment final result in early breast cancer. Additionally, the suggestions from the American Society of Clinical Oncology also contemplate the elements in the uPAS to become promising targets for future therapeutic stu dies.
The first inhibitors of uPA have now been tested in oncology trials throughout the world, and considered one of the com lbs, WX 671, has received US FDA selleck chemical approval to get a phase II trial in metastatic breast cancer in mixture with chemotherapy. Evidence exists that uPA is extremely expressed in CD44 cells. Conceptually, this fits with the strategy that TICs are invasive, and as this kind of, they’re discovered in circulating tumor cells from individuals. High levels of uPA can also be linked with breast cancer relapse, which again could underpin the concept that its expression in TICs is associated with drug resistance. SKP2 is overexpressed in the subset of breast carcinomas and may well perform a purpose inside the development of resistance to anti estrogens.
Overexpression of SKP2 is related with resis tance to preoperative doxorubicin based chemotherapy in primary breast cancer. Even more confirmation of this effect on TICs could aid define much better therapeutic approaches. It must be noted also that our major display targets the general development inhibition of SUM149 rather then the TICs, it’s attainable that some kinases can be missed from your hit record if they are active only to the TICs, but not or weakly lively within the bulk of your cancer cell population.
At the moment, the American University of Rheumatology lists thirty rheumatic ailments and 12 rheumatic ailments. Rheumatic ailment contributes signicantly to population health burden. One example is, rheumatoid arthritis aects just about 1% of the world population and is a signicant lead to of disability. Epigenetics initially invoked the notion of stable and heritable gene expression changes which are not resulting from modifications during the primary DNA sequence. Two amounts of epigenetic gene regulation can now be envisaged, the traditional form involving steady heritable modifications and en hanced epigenetic modications, which could be thought to be regulatory mechanisms orchestrating inducible res ponses with the cellular degree which may perhaps or will not be heritable.
Existing epigenetic mechanisms involve the next, DNA CpG methylation, histone post trans lational modications, histone variants, and non coding RNA. Aberrant epigenetic regulation selelck kinase inhibitor of gene expression is now acknowledged to become significant from the pathogenesis of several conditions, including cancer. Aberrant epigenetic regulation is additionally implicated within the pathogenesis of lots of autoimmune inammatory condi tions, together with diabetes and neuro degenerative disorder. An increasing entire body of proof back links aberrant or altered epigenetic regulatory mechanisms with the patho genesis of lots of rheumatic disorder states, raising the likelihood that epigenetic targeting therapies could have a possible part from the management of these ailments. This overview considers current advances in this place and delivers an overview with the potential utility of epigenetic focusing on agents inside the treatment method of rheumatic illness.
DNA methylation adjustments in rheumatic condition The hyperlink amongst aberrant DNA methylation and altered gene expression was rst established in scientific studies on cancer. Altered DNA methylation also occurs in rheumatic situations, this kind of as systemic lupus erythematosus, together with other autoimmune problems. The study selleck chemical of twins is emerging as a crucial device for identifying epigenetic eects in illness. Many this kind of studies have identied altered DNA methylation patterns in SLE and dermatomyositis but not in RA. The genes for which a reduction of DNA methylation was observed included several genes associated with immune function, and this reduction of DNA was correlated with enhanced gene expression amounts. A research involving worldwide genome broad DNA CpG methylation analysis in CD4 T cells from patients with SLE identied regions of hypomethy lation and hypermethylation.
sylves tris, the defense response function is overrepresented, in N. tomentosiformis we observe an enrichment of core metabolic functions as well as protein phosphorylation. In excess of 7,000 proteins may be annotated by using a three digit EC number making use of the EFICAz tool, of which more than 4,000 had been assigned with substantial self-confidence. This implies that just significantly less than 20% of the predicted proteome of your two species has enzymatic function. Just in excess of 4,000 and over 3,000 four digit EC numbers might be assigned to predicted proteins. Despite the fact that the quantity of unique four digit EC numbers is comparatively little, this informa tion can nevertheless be made use of to make molecular pathway databases.
Around half of each of the proteins were annotated with a minimum of a single GO phrase from the InterProScan software, close to 50,000 biological process tags were assigned and slightly in excess of twenty,000 molecular func tions were assigned to just below twenty,000 one of a kind pro hop over to this site teins. GO term enrichment was analyzed using the GOStats bundle. Enrichment was tested by com paring the GO phrase complement for every species towards the background from the pooled set of GO terms from the two organisms. We see only tiny and not really The phenotypic differences among the species are thus likely to be regulatory rather then as a result of loss or gains of new genes. A caveat exists in the absence of the gene inside the genome of a single species doesn’t guaran tee the gene does not exist, it really is possible that the part from the genome containing the gene merely hasn’t been covered by our present efforts and that more sequencing will recognize these.
The outcomes of GO phrase enrichment analysis are shown in Added file eleven. Hefty metal transport A non exhaustive checklist of gene copies that could be involved in cadmium/zinc accumulation in Nicotiana leaves is proven in Further file twelve. The corresponding transcripts in root, leaf and flower are depicted. The expression information resulting from the hybridization screening compounds of unique Affymetrix probes with leaf RNA iso lated from N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis supplied data much like fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads expression data. The results show that the design with the Affymetrix exon probes is suitable for that analyses of gene expression in both tobacco ancestors, N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis.
Primarily based on sequence and expression data analogies with corresponding Arabidopsis thaliana gene data, two Nicotiana iron transport relevant sequences belonging towards the IRT relatives had been identified and named NsylIRT1, NtomIRT1 and NsylIRT2, NtomIRT2 corresponding to Arabidopsis IRT1 and IRT2. Both with the A. thaliana genes are expressed inside the roots and are concerned in Zn/ Cd uptake, while IRT1 is a lot more selective for iron. Interestingly, IRT1 and IRT2 are expressed in N. sylvestris roots but not in N.
The statistical significance of practical Gene Ontology anno tations was estimated by means of P values of self-confidence cal culated by operating Fishers exact check to compare the amount of genes assigned to your numerous practical classes inside of each cluster of the dendrogram. Functional analysis Functional evaluation in the major genes obtained for every induced state was executed using a functional annotation instrument called GeneCodis. This device finds combinations of co occurrent annotations which are substantially associated having a listing of genes underneath examine with respect to a reference checklist. The signif icance from the annotations is calculated using a hypergeometric statistical test with FDR P value correction and implementing as ref erence the mouse genome.
The annotations have been executed on the same time for you to the full Gene Ontology database and to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes path methods database. After the analyses had been done with Gene Codis, the redundancy to the checklist of genes which are assigned to each functional class was depurated by manual curation in order to determine inhibitor Imatinib distinct groups of genes that incorporate comparable or associated biological functions and which could be enclosed in extra general cellular processes as presented in Tables one and two. Microfluidic cards RNA from mouse embryo fibroblasts subjected to the vary ent experimental circumstances underneath review was utilised for quan titative PCR validation on reduced density microarrays, microfluidic cards utilizing the 18 s ribosomal subunit as an internal manage. RNA had been reverse tran scribed applying the High Capability cDNA Archive Kit as proposed through the supplier.
The previously synthesized cDNA was then mixed with 50l within the Taq man Universal PCR Master Mix and 50l of great post to read RNAses no cost water. Samples have been loaded to the microfluidic cards containing the lyophilized oligos in each well after which centrifuged at one,200 rpm for 2 minutes. Cards had been sealed using a Very low Density Array Sealer plus the PCR reaction was carried out in an ABI PRISM 7900HT termocycler. Final results had been analyzed employing the application Sequence Detection Sys tems v2. 1. Western blot analysis of cellular extracts Protein lysates were obtained and quantified as previously described Lysates have been loaded onto SDS polyacrylamide gels and the electrophoresed proteins bovine serum albumin were incubated, as proper, with dilutions of 0. 2 mg/ml of industrial antibodies from Santa Cruz Biotechnologies and horseradish peroxidase conjugated had been made use of as secondary antibodies. Immunoblots were formulated working with the industrial Enhanced Chemilumi nescence and ECL plus kits following the suppliers recommendations. Reverse phase protein lysate array layout and antibody staining Reverse phase protein microarrays have been completed as previously described.
Tamoxifen and its metabolites are actually shown to stimu late breast cancer proliferation by means of GPR30 in these unique conditions. Taken collectively, these findings suggest that GPR30 promotes tamoxifen resistance in individuals with breast cancer in the course of endocrine treatment. Preclinical and clinical studies have proven that pa tients with ER breast cancer that in excess of expresses EGFR and HER 2 have a lower sensitivity or shorter duration of response to hormone treatment. Inappropriate acti vation of development issue receptors, specially from the EGFR loved ones, is reportedly accountable for advancement of tam oxifen resistance. In inhibitor price breast cancer patients, EGFR targeted treatment suppresses tamoxifen resistant tumor progression, even so, the original activator on the EGFR signaling pathway is disputed.
Reportedly, about 50% of ER breast cancer individuals ex press GPR30, which coincides with the advancement of tamoxifen resistance. In our study, expression of GPR30 was significantly enhanced in MTs relative to their corresponding PTs, and was also correlated with EGFR expression in MTs. We, for that reason, hypothesized that even further review of GPR30 would give insight to the development selleck chemical of tamoxifen resistance. GPR30 is imagined for being a brand new membrane bound es trogen receptor, which differs in the classical nuclear estrogen receptors and B and with a disputed role as being a practical estrogen receptor in breast cancer cells. Several scientific studies display that GPR30 col laborates with ER to transmit estrogen signaling, some others propose that GPR30 inhibits proliferation of ER breast cancer cells.
Our experiments observed stimulation in wild form MCF seven cells by E2 to get more powerful than G1. These outcomes suggest that GPR30 plays a secondary function in estrogen induced proliferation in parent cells. In TAM R MCF 7 cells, the skills of E2 and G1 to professional mote cell proliferation have been considerably elevated, and Tam approaching a clinically related concentra tion stimulated cell development. As a result, we can con clude that the capacity of GPR30 to mediate estrogen action is significantly reinforced for the duration of advancement of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells. A number of the very to start with reviews indicated the GB? subunit protein of GPR30 greatly has an effect on the GPR30/EGFR signaling pathway. Downstream of GPR30 signaling, E2 induction prospects to activation with the SRC like tyrosine kinase and metalloproteinases which, in turn, stimulates extracellular release of HB EGF, presumably as a result of the GB? subunit protein. Release of HB EGF makes it possible for it to activate the EGFR signaling pathway, leading to in duction of Erk1/2 phosphorylation with consequent stimulation of cell development.
7 cm left upper lobe lung lesion. This was performed underneath CT guidance and numerous aspirates had been obtained for examination. Benefits and discussion DNA sequencing and mutation detection There were two,584,553,684 and 498,229,009 42 bp sequence reads that aligned towards the reference human gen ome in the tumor DNA and tumor transcrip tome, respectively. We aligned 342,019,291 sequence reads from ordinary gDNA purified from peripheral blood cells and 62,517,972 sequence reads from your leu kocyte transcriptome to your human reference to serve as controls. Our evaluation concentrated on individuals genetic changes that we could predict elicited an impact for the cellular perform, that is, changes in powerful copy num ber of the gene or the sequence of a protein product.
As a result of our inability to usefully interpret alterations in non coding areas, this kind of adjustments were not deemed. Comparison of your relative frequency of sequence align ment derived from your tumor and regular DNA identi fied 7,629 genes in chromosomally amplified areas, and of selleck chemicals Gemcitabine these, 17 genes were classified as getting remarkably amplified. Our evaluation also unveiled big regions of chromosomal loss, such as 12p, 17p, 18q and 22q. Intriguingly, we observed reduction of approxi mately 57 megabases from 18q, while inside of this area we observed 3 really amplified segments. Frequent loss of 18q has been observed in colorectal metastases. In such circumstances it is actually believed the inactivation in the tumor suppressor protein Smad4 and the allelic loss of 18q are driving events in the formation of metastasis to the liver.
The expression degree of Smad4 within the tumor was noticed to be pretty lower. Hence, down regulation of Smad4 in addition to reduction of 18q also appear for being properties from the tumor. Other substantial chromosomal supplier SCH66336 losses observed during the tumor, 17p, 22q and 12p, did not correlate with losses often determined in previous research of salivary gland tumors. Our initial evaluation of sequence alignments identified 84 DNA putative sequence adjustments corresponding to non synonymous adjustments in protein coding regions pre sent only inside of the tumor, of which 4 were subse quently validated to become somatic tumor mutations by Sanger sequencing. The vast bulk of false positives were due to undetected heterozygous alleles while in the germline. Somatic mutations had been observed in two nicely characterized tumor suppressor genes, TP53 as well as a truncating mutation in RB1 getting rid of 75% of its coding sequence, with TP53 also inside of a area of heterozygous loss.
Transcriptome analysis Entire transcriptome shotgun sequencing was conducted to profile the expression of tumor transcripts. Within the absence of an equivalent nor mal tissue for comparison, we compared expression changes towards the individuals leukocytes and a compendium of 50 tumor derived WTSS datasets, which would avoid spurious observations as a result of technical or methodologi cal differences in between gene expression profiling plat forms.
Tamoxifen and its metabolites are already shown to stimu late breast cancer proliferation through GPR30 in these individual conditions. Taken collectively, these findings suggest that GPR30 promotes tamoxifen resistance in sufferers with breast cancer for the duration of endocrine treatment method. Preclinical and clinical research have proven that pa tients with ER breast cancer that above expresses EGFR and HER two possess a lower sensitivity or shorter duration of response to hormone treatment. Inappropriate acti vation of growth component receptors, specifically within the EGFR family, is reportedly accountable for improvement of tam oxifen resistance. In selleckchem breast cancer patients, EGFR targeted treatment suppresses tamoxifen resistant tumor progression, nevertheless, the preliminary activator of the EGFR signaling pathway is disputed.
Reportedly, approximately 50% of ER breast cancer sufferers ex press GPR30, which coincides with all the development of tamoxifen resistance. In our research, expression of GPR30 was drastically increased in MTs relative to their corresponding PTs, and was also correlated with EGFR expression in MTs. We, for that reason, hypothesized that even further examine of GPR30 would present insight into the development R428 of tamoxifen resistance. GPR30 is thought to get a new membrane bound es trogen receptor, which differs from the classical nuclear estrogen receptors and B and by using a disputed role like a practical estrogen receptor in breast cancer cells. A lot of scientific studies demonstrate that GPR30 col laborates with ER to transmit estrogen signaling, others recommend that GPR30 inhibits proliferation of ER breast cancer cells.
Our experiments located stimulation in wild form MCF seven cells by E2 to get stronger than G1. These effects suggest that GPR30 plays a secondary part in estrogen induced proliferation in mother or father cells. In TAM R MCF seven cells, the capabilities of E2 and G1 to pro mote cell proliferation were considerably elevated, and Tam approaching a clinically related concentra tion stimulated cell growth. So, we can con clude the capability of GPR30 to mediate estrogen action is appreciably reinforced throughout improvement of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells. A number of the extremely 1st reviews indicated the GB? subunit protein of GPR30 tremendously affects the GPR30/EGFR signaling pathway. Downstream of GPR30 signaling, E2 induction leads to activation on the SRC like tyrosine kinase and metalloproteinases which, in turn, stimulates extracellular release of HB EGF, presumably via the GB? subunit protein. Release of HB EGF permits it to activate the EGFR signaling pathway, leading to in duction of Erk1/2 phosphorylation with consequent stimulation of cell growth.
The presence of L arginine in the culture media improved the ratio of cells having a healthful mitochondrial membrane when compared to cells with an altered mitochondrial membrane probable. Hence, the current study indicates that L arginine decreases the incidence of endometrial RL95 two cell apoptosis by stopping the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting a function for L arginine within the regula tion of endometrial epithelial apoptosis. Mitochondrial membrane possible is highly influenced by proteins that belong on the BCL2 relatives. The pro apoptotic protein BAX along with the anti apoptotic protein BCL2 are sometimes studied collectively as indicators of apoptosis. In wholesome cells, a balance exists by which BCL2 is normally located imbedded during the mitochondrial membrane.
Underneath apoptotic situations, activated BAX will embed in the mitochondrial membrane with BCL2 and disrupt the mitochondrial membrane potential. Accordingly, we examined if L arginines prevention of apoptosis is by way of a BCL2 and BAX mediated event. Interestingly, the pres ence of L arginine did not increase the ratio of BCL2 to BAX in endometrial RL95 2 cells. In fact, the BCL2 to recommended you read BAX mRNA and protein ratios had been increased in endometrial RL95 two cells not exposed to L arginine which had been beneath going apoptosis by a mitochondrial mediated path way. Despite the anti apoptotic properties of BCL2, upregulation of BCL2 mRNA and protein is reported in cells undergoing apoptosis. Furthermore, enhanced expression of BCL2 protein can lead to disrup tion of mitochondrial membrane prospective, as caspases can cleave BCL2 into a BAX like molecule which may serve as a latent professional apoptotic stimuli in apoptotic cells.
Simply because publicity to L arginine CC-292 clinical trial did not boost the ratio of BCL2 to BAX, we hypothesized that L arginine may possibly lower endometrial RL95 two cell apoptosis through an substitute mechanism. As well as BCL2 and BAX, Undesirable is a different member from the BCL2 family of proteins that influences mitochondrial membrane poten tial. The presence of L arginine from the culture media did not have an effect on the amounts of total Terrible. Nonetheless, L arginine elevated p Negative levels in endometrial RL95 2 cells and increased the ratio of p Poor to Negative, indicat ing that L arginine enhances the phosphorylation of Terrible protein at serine residue 136 in endometrial RL95 2 cells. When Poor is phosphorylated at both serine residue 112 or 136, it’s bound by 14 3 3 and sequestered from the cytosol. In contrast, non phosphorylated Poor interacts with BCL2 and BCL XL embedded during the mitochondrial membrane and inhibits their anti apoptotic properties and brings about release of cytochrome C. Within this regard, L arginine reduces mitochondrial membrane disruption and, as a result, apoptosis by means of phosphorylation of Poor in endometrial RL95 two cells.
We now have shown previously that RSV inhibits IGF 1R in HT 29 cells. RSV suppressed FAK activation while in the presence and absence of IGF 1. These results indicate that RSV suppression of cell professional liferation and elevation of apoptosis consists of modulation of FAK signaling, contemplating the integrin mediated FAK signaling regulates the two proliferative and apoptotic signaling pathways. Conclusions Proteomic profiling enabled us to identify novel targets of RSV. Our outcomes create PPP as well as talin pFAK as targets of RSV to suppress cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell line HT 29. These scientific studies could demonstrate germane towards the envisaged use of RSV being a colon cancer chemopreventive agent too as professional vide novel biomarkers to target and halt colon cancer cell kinetics.
Resources and procedures Chemicals RSV together with other cell culture products have been obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. IGF 1 was pur chased from R D Systems. Fetal bovine serum was obtained from HyClone. selleck inhibitor Cell line Colon cancer cell line HT 29, was obtained from your American Style Culture Collection. Cells were maintained at 37 C in a humidified atmo sphere with 5% CO2 and grown in Dulbeccos Modified Eagles Medium F 12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, two. 2 g/L sodium bicarbonate, 0. 2 g/L bovine serum albumin and 10 mL/L streptomy cin penicillin mix. Sample planning HT 29 cells have been seeded at a density of 1. 5 ? 105 cells/ mL in DMEM F twelve media with 5% charcoal stripped FBS. Subsequent day, cells had been handled with DMSO, IGF 1 or RSV for 24 h.
We found from dose response studies with IGF 1 that 10 and 20 nM IGF one solutions didn’t vary in elevating cell proliferation. Thus, we applied 10 nM concentration of IGF 1 for our experiments, that is close to standard circulating amounts. Protein was extracted find out this here right into a higher salt buffer con taining 1% protease and phosphatase inhibitor cocktail, and protein concentrations were determined by a BCA Protein Assay kit. The lysate sam ples had been reduced, alkylated and double digested with trypsin to generate peptides. The digested peptides had been totally dried in the SpeedVac and sus pended in 100 uL of 5% acetonitrile acidified with 0. 1% formic acid. 200 ug of peptides have been immediately loaded onto a 1 ? 150 mm Poly SEA robust cation exchange column working with Agilent 1200 auto sampler.
Peptides had been eluted to 10 fractions employing 0 a hundred mM ammonium formate for 40 min and 5 frac tions in 100 1000 mM ammonium formate for 10 min on Agilent 1200 Capillary LC and Analytical fraction collector at a flow charge of 50 uL/min. Peptides were dried and reconstituted in 10 ul of 0. 1% TFA for LC MS/MS evaluation. HPLC Chip/MS evaluation A three ul volume of peptides were injected into an LC/MS program consisting of an 1100 Series liquid chromatograph, HPLC Chip Cube MS interface, and 1100 Series LC/MSD Trap XCT Ultra ion trap mass spectrometer.