\n\nIt is possible to visualize the fossa ovalis on pre-ablation CT and localize the transseptal needle accurately within the margins of
the fossa ovalis utilizing EnSite Fusion (TM) and Verismo (TM) software.”
“Purpose: There are controversial reports regarding the long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS). The reported complete success rates from studies in different populations around the world are 13% to 77%. p38 kinase assay This prospective study was aimed to evaluate the IOP lowering effect of deep sclerectomy with Mitomycin C (DSMMC) in a group of Iranian patients with open angle glaucoma.\n\nMethods: Ninety eyes of 87 patients with medically uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study and were surgically treated by DSMMC. All patients had complete eye examination before and at regular intervals after the operation. Surgical success was considered for IOP of <= 21 mmHg.\n\nResults: The mean age was 64 +/- 12 years; the mean follow-up was 33 +/- 22 months. The mean preoperative IOP of 42 +/- 13 mmHg was significantly decreased to the mean final IOP of 22 +/- 11 mmHg (P<0.001). The IOP lowering effect of surgery reduced this website by time (P<0.001). Cystic bleb was developed in 13.3% of eyes. The
probability for an IOP <= 21 mmHg was 35% without the use of antiglaucoma drops and 71% with or without the use of antiglaucoma drops.\n\nConclusion: DSMMC could effectively reduce IOP in eyes with POAG and was accompanied by few operative complications. Most of the patients needed to continue using antiglaucoma drops after the operation. This procedure is not fair whenever low target IOPs are required.”
jurisdictions require cyclists to wear bicycle helmets. The UK is currently not one of these. However, an increasing number of interest groups, including the British Medical Association, want to change the status quo. They argue that mandatory cycle helmet laws will reduce the incidence of head injuries and that this will be both good for cyclists (because they will suffer fewer head injuries) and good for society (because the burden of having to treat cyclists suffering from head injuries will be reduced). In selleck chemicals llc this paper we argue against this position. We suggest that cycle helmets may not be especially effective in reducing head injuries and we suggest that the imposition of such a restrictive law would violate people’s freedom and reduce their autonomy. We also argue that those who accept such a restrictive law would be committed to supporting further legislation which would force many other groups – including pedestrians – to take fewer risks with their health. We conclude that cycle helmet legislation should not be enacted in the UK unless, perhaps, it is restricted to children.
Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110:2504-2512. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) are reported to suffer from vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), including considerable impairment of executive function/attention. The spatial pattern of functional brain activity in adult MMD patients with VCI has not been studied before and can be measured by examining the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) during rest. Twenty-three adult patients selleckchem with MMD were recruited to participate in
this study, including 11 with VCI and 12 without VCI (NonVCI), as well as 22 healthy young adults (normal control, NC). Widespread differences in ALFF were observed between the VCI/NonVCI and NC groups in such regions as the frontal, parietal and temporal gyri, with parts of the frontal gyms, such as the anterior cingulate selleck chemicals llc cortex (ACC) and the right supplemental motor area (SMA), showing significant differences in ALFF. It is worth to note that regions
such as the parietal gyrus, the right superior frontal gyms (SFG), the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the left caudate nucleus (CN) exhibited significant changes in ALFF during the progressive cognitive decline of MMD. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MMD exhibits a specific intrinsic pattern of ALFF and that this pattern changes with the progression of cognitive decline, providing insight into the pathophysiological nature of this disease. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Efforts to identify and annotate cancer driver genetic lesions have been focused primarily Selleck Barasertib on the analysis of protein-coding genes; however, most genetic abnormalities found in human cancer are located in intergenic regions. Here we identify a new long range acting MYC enhancer controlled by
NOTCH1 that is targeted by recurrent chromosomal duplications in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). This highly conserved regulatory element, hereby named N-Me for NOTCH MYC enhancer, is located within a broad super-enhancer region +1.47 Mb from the MYC transcription initiating site, interacts with the MYC proximal promoter and induces orientation-independent MYC expression in reporter assays. Moreover, analysis of N-Me knockout mice demonstrates a selective and essential role of this regulatory element during thymocyte development and in NOTCH/-induced T-ALL. Together these results identify N-Me as a long-range oncogenic enhancer implicated directly in the pathogenesis of human leukemia and highlight the importance of the NOTCH1-MYC regulatory axis in T cell transformation and as a therapeutic target in T-ALL.”
“The low solubility of Nystatin causes biopharmaceutical problems decreasing the bioavailability or biological availability, compromising the bioanalytical analysis.
The agreement achieved for both O-18(3) and O-16(3) (average difference on the order of 1 cm (1)) indicates that the used potential energy surface provides accurate predictions up to a vibrational excitation approaching 80% of the dissociation energy.
The comparison of the O-18(3) and O-16(3) band intensities is also discussed, opening a field of questions concerning the variation of the dipole moments and resonance intensity borrowing by isotopic substitution. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: A Cross Sectional population based serological studies was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for syphilis women with recurrent miscarriages. Methods: Patient’s 5ml whole blood was
collected through venepuncture technique. Data were collected by all women answered a questionnaire and Fludarabine nmr by investigating blood sample VDRL test and FTA-ABS test. The study was conducted in a confidential manner and numbers were used to identify the participant. Results: Total 256 women were included in the present study. Mean age of women was 29.4 years while range was 21 to 38 years (206/256). Out of the 256 samples, 05 (1.9%) were positive for active syphilis. Majority belonged to low socioeconomic group, uneducated and had previous congenital anomaly. Conclusion: Active infection with Treponema pallidum (T.P) in women belonging to low socioeconomic level were disquieting. This is probably due to illiteracy and high proportion of unsafe sexual behavior. It is also Selonsertib chemical structure suggestive that seropositive status is often discovered in routine serological studies during pregnancy.”
“Background: Fatty acid (FA)-alterations may mediate the mutual association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, etiology of observed FA-alterations in MDD and CVD remains largely unclear. An interesting candidate may be a mutation in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2)-gene, because it regulates dietary FA-uptake. Therefore, we aimed
to test the hypotheses https://www.selleckchem.com/products/s63845.html that in MDD-patients the FABP2 Ala54Thr-polymorphism would be (I) more prevalent than in sex-and age-matched controls, (II) associated with observed alterations in FA-metabolism, and (III) associated with CVD-risk factor waist circumference. Methods: We measured concentrations of 29 different erythrocyte FAs, FABP2-genotype, and waist circumference in recurrent MDD-patients and matched never-depressed controls. Results: FABP2-genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the 137 MDD-patients and 73 matched controls. However, patients with the Ala54Thr-polymorphism had (I) higher concentrations of especially eicosadienoic acid (C20:2 omega 6; P=.009) and other 20-carbon FAs, and associated (II) lower waist circumference (P=.019).
Regardless of their treatment assignment in the parent study, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive either open-label subcutaneous evolocumab 420 mg every 4 weeks with standard
of care (SOC) (evolocumab+SOC, n=736) or SOC alone (n=368). Ninety-two percent of patients in the evolocumab+SOC group and 89% of patients in the SOC group completed 52 weeks of follow-up. Patients who first received evolocumab in OSLER experienced a mean 52.3% [SE, 1.8%] reduction in LDL-C at week 52 (P smaller than 0.0001). Patients who received 1 of 6 dosing regimens of evolocumab in the parent studies and received evolocumab+SOC in OSLER had persistent LDL-C GSK1120212 purchase reductions (mean reduction, 50.4% [SE, 0.8%] at the end of the parent study versus 52.1% [SE, 1.0%] at 52 weeks; P=0.31). In patients who discontinued evolocumab on entry into OSLER, LDL-C levels returned to near baseline levels. Adverse events and serious adverse events occurred in 81.4% and 7.1% of the evolocumab+SOC group patients and 73.1% and 6.3% of the SOC
group patients, respectively. Conclusion selleck compound Evolocumab dosed every 4 weeks demonstrated continued efficacy and encouraging safety and tolerability over 1 year of treatment in the largest and longest evaluation of a PCSK9 inhibitor in hypercholesterolemic patients to date. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01439880.”
“The oncoprotein cytotoxic associated gene A (CagA) of Helicobacter pylori plays a pivotal role in the development of gastric cancer, so it has been an important target for anti-H. pylori drugs. Conventional drugs are currently being implemented against H. pylori. The inhibitory role of plant metabolites like curcumin against H. pylori is still a major scientific challenge. Curcumin may represent a novel promising drug against H. pylori infection without producing side effects. In the present study, a comparative analysis Evofosfamide inhibitor between
curcumin and conventional drugs (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, pantoprazole, and metronidazole) was carried out using databases to investigate the potential of curcumin against H. pylori targeting the CagA oncoprotein. Curcumin was filtered using Lipinski’s rule of five and the druglikeness property for evaluation of pharmacological properties. Subsequently, molecular docking was employed to determine the binding affinities of curcumin and conventional drugs to the CagA oncoprotein. According to the results obtained from FireDock, the binding energy of curcumin was higher than those of amoxicillin, pantoprazole, and metronidazole, except for clarithromycin, which had the highest binding energy. Accordingly, curcumin may become a promising lead compound against CagA+ H. pylori infection.”
“Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a major enzyme in the initial catabolic step of estradiol (E2) metabolism and belongs to the multitude of genes regulated by the estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha).
CTC-Endothelial interactions provide a novel insight into potential adhesive mechanisms of prostate CTCs as a means to initiate metastasis.”
“Background: Airway remodeling is a repair process that occurs after injury resulting in increased airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma. Thymic Ricolinostat datasheet stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a vital cytokine, plays a critical role in orchestrating, perpetuating and amplifying the inflammatory response in asthma. TSLP is also a critical factor in airway remodeling in asthma.\n\nObjectives: To examine the role
of TSLP-induced cellular senescence in airway remodeling of asthma in vitro and in vivo.\n\nMethods: Cellular senescence and airway remodeling were examined in lung specimens from patients with asthma using immunohischemical analysis. Both small molecule and shRNA approaches that target the senescent signaling pathways were used to explore the role of cellular senescence in TSLP-induced airway remodeling in vitro. Senescence-Associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) staining, and BrdU assays were used to detect cellular senescence. In addition, the Salubrinal supplier Stat3-targeted inhibitor, WP1066, was evaluated
in an asthma mouse model to determine if inhibiting cellular senescence influences airway remodeling in asthma.\n\nResults: Activation of cellular senescence as evidenced by checkpoint activation and cell cycle arrest was detected in airway epithelia samples from patients with asthma. Furthermore, TSLP-induced cellular senescence was required for airway remodeling in vitro. In addition, a mouse asthma model indicates that inhibiting cellular senescence blocks airway remodeling and relieves airway resistance.\n\nConclusion: TSLP stimulation LEE011 Cell Cycle inhibitor can induce cellular senescence during airway remodeling in asthma. Inhibiting the signaling pathways of cellular senescence overcomes TSLP-induced airway remodeling.”
“The bacteria cell envelope is a complex multilayered structure that serves to protect these organisms from their unpredictable and often hostile environment. The cell envelopes of most
bacteria fall into one of two major groups. Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a thin peptidoglycan cell wall, which itself is surrounded by an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide. Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane but are surrounded by layers of peptidoglycan many times thicker than is found in the Gram-negatives. Threading through these layers of peptidoglycan are long anionic polymers, called teichoic acids. The composition and organization of these envelope layers and recent insights into the mechanisms of cell envelope assembly are discussed.”
“To enhance adsorption of organic dyes like malachite green (MG) onto polymeric absorbents, we prepared carbon nanotube (CNT) filled polyaniline (PANI) composites with large surface areas by simply using entangled CNTs as porous frameworks during PANI polymerization.
Molecular genetic screening of the CASR is often based on DNA sequencing.\n\nMethods: We sought to develop a pre-screening method in the diagnostic procedure and pursued variant scanning by high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) on a LightScanner instrument. We used 50 samples,
representing 45 different rare variants, to validate the HRM method. In addition, we implemented small amplicon genotyping of three frequent CASR variants (c.1732+16T/C, c.2956G>T and Selleck GDC-0994 c.2968A>G).\n\nResults: Using HRM, we identified 43 of 45 variants confidently (-96%) while two variants escaped immediate detection. Implementing this method in clinical use further resulted in the identification of seven new CASR variants and nine recurrent. HRM variant scanning, in combination with small selleckchem amplicon genotyping, provides a simple workflow with reduced sequencing burden. Bioinformatics analyses using two freely available prediction tools (PolyPhen2 and SIFT) for evaluating amino acid substitutions were compared and indicated discrepancies in the prediction for 25% of the variants.\n\nConclusion: This study demonstrates the utility of HRM as a pre-screening method, adds 24 novel rare CASR variants, and further emphasizes the importance of clinical decision making
based on all available information rather than bioinformatics alone. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The t(14;18) translocation constitutes the initiating event of a causative cascade leading to follicular lymphoma (FL). t(14;18) translocations are present in blood from healthy individuals, but there is a trend of MDV3100 in vivo increased prevalence in farmers exposed to pesticides, a group recently associated
with higher risk of t(14;18)(+) non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma development. A direct connection between agricultural pesticide use, t(14;18) in blood, and malignant progression, however, has not yet been demonstrated. We followed t(14;18) clonal evolution over 9 yr in a cohort of farmers exposed to pesticides. We show that exposed individuals bear particularly high t(14;18) frequencies in blood because of a dramatic clonal expansion of activated t(14;18)+ B cells. We further demonstrate that such t(14;18)+ clones recapitulate the hallmark features of developmentally blocked FL cells, with some displaying aberrant activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity linked to malignant progression. Collectively, our data establish that expanded t(14;18)+ clones constitute bona fide precursors at various stages of FL development, and provide a molecular connection between agricultural pesticide exposure, t(14;18) frequency in blood, and clonal progression.
Here we investigated the effects of a low concentration of BMP-7 on human osteoarthritic chondrocytes administered by protein co-cultivation and plasmid transfection.\n\nMethods: Freshly released (P0) or in vitro propagated chondrocytes (P2) were cultivated in a collagen type-I gel for 3 weeks in vitro or in nude mice. Seeded chondrocytes were treated with 50 ng/mL BMP-7 directly added to the medium or were subject to transient BMP-7 plasmid transfection
prior to gel cultivation. Untreated specimens served as a control. buy AG-881 After recovery, samples were investigated by histological and immunohistochemical staining and real-time PCR.\n\nResults: In vitro, collagen type-II protein production was enhanced, and it was stored mainly pericellularly. Collagen type-II and aggrecan gene expression were enhanced in both treatment groups. After nude mouse cultivation, col-II protein production was further enhanced, but specimens of the BMP-7 transfection group revealed a clustering of col-II positive cells. Gene expression was strongly upregulated, chondrocyte number was increased and the differentiated phenotype prevailed. In general, freshly released chondrocytes Selleckchem PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor (P0) proved to be superior to chondrocytes
pre-amplified in vitro (P2).\n\nConclusions: Both BMP-7 co-cultivation and plasmid transfection of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes led to improved cartilage repair tissue. Nevertheless, the col-II distribution following BMP-7 co-cultivation was homogeneous, while samples produced by transient transfection revealed a col-II clustering.”
“Novel visible-light-responsive Mn-doped ZnO/Graphene nanocomposite photocatalysts were synthesized using a facile single step solvothermal
method. A range of techniques including X-Ray diffraction (XRD), a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), a scanning U0126 electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FAR), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analyzer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the as-prepared composites. UV visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to study the optical properties, which confirmed that the spectral responses of the nanocomposite catalysts were gradually extended to the visible-light region as Mn dosage increased. Fluorescence emission spectra verified that Mn-doped ZnO/Graphene nanocomposites possess enhanced charge separation capability compared to ZnO/Graphene, Mn-doped ZnO and pure ZnO. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by following the degradation of methylene blue (MB), a model dye under visible light irradiation.
“ObjectivesCurrently available vacuum devices used to assist
women undergoing complicated labour are unsuitable for use in low-resource settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a new low-cost vacuum device, named Koohi Goth Vacuum Delivery System (KGVDS), designed for use in low-resource settings. MethodsA hospital-based, multicentre, prospective cohort study with no control group was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan. After training, CAL-101 nmr KGVDS devices were made available for use by labour room staff at their discretion when instrumental delivery was indicated. Women to whom KGVDS was applied were followed from the start of labour until discharge. Feasibility was assessed in terms of successful expulsion of the foetal head following application of KGVDS and ease of use ratings. Safety was assessed by observing maternal and newborn post-delivery outcomes prior to discharge. ResultsKoohi Goth Vacuum Delivery System was applied
to 137 women requiring instrumental delivery, of whom 111 (81%; 95% CI=74-88%) successfully expelled the foetal head assisted by KGVDS and 103 (75%) stated that they would agree to use KGVDS again. There were no serious maternal or neonatal injuries or infections related to KGVDS use. CYT387 order The mean score for ease of use’ given by doctors and midwives using the device was 8 of 10. ConclusionsKoohi Goth Vacuum Delivery System was feasible and safe to use for assisting complicated deliveries in low-resource hospitals in this initial evaluation. CRT0066101 in vivo Our results indicate that this new device may have the potential to improve birth outcomes in settings where most mortality occurs and that further evaluations should be conducted.”
“Under the increasing pressure of human activities, Hangzhou
Bay has become one of the most seriously polluted waters along China’s coast. Considering the excessive inorganic nitrogen detected in the bay, in this study, the impact of an effluent from a coastal industrial park on ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) of the receiving area was interpreted for the first time by molecular technologies. Revealed by real-time PCR, the ratio of archaeal amoA/bacterial amoA ranged from 5.68 x 10(-6) to 4.79 x 10(-5) in the activated sludge from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 0.54-3.44 in the sediments from the effluent receiving coastal area. Analyzed by clone and pyrosequencing libraries, genus Nitrosomonas was the predominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), but no ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was abundant enough for sequencing in the activated sludge from the WWTPs; genus Nitrosomonas and Nitrosopumilus were the dominant AOB and AOA, respectively, in the coastal sediments. The different abundance of AOA but similar structure of AOB between the WWTPs and nearby coastal area probably indicated an anthropogenic impact on the microbial ecology in Hangzhou Bay.
Rather, P. favieri has a unique mandibular structure that seems to be functionally analogous to the protheca. It is a long, broadly lanceolate, distinctly flattened structure apparently homologous to the medial mandibular seta (MN2*), which arises from an area behind the cutting edge of mandible. We predict that the function of the protheca and this similar structure in P. favieri are involved in a specialized feeding strategy that may include soliciting trophallaxis from their host ants. We also report some observations of the first instar hatching from the egg, feeding on liquid
and a behaviour we interpret as a “calling behavior,” all of which were videotaped and posted on the Tree of Life Web Project.”
“Developing sustainable chemical methods to synthesize silver nanoparticles has drawn significant research interest. Due to their unique and well-defined physical-chemical properties, cellulose CYT387 molecular weight nanocrystals (CNCs) have become one of the most promising renewable nanomaterials. Here we use CNC to mediate silver nanoparticle synthesis and elucidate the effect of CNC surface chemistry (as defined by sulfate groups) in nanoparticle formation and nucleation in the presence of borohydride reduction. Pristine CNCs produced by sulfuric
acid hydrolysis and partially desulfated CNCs mediated the formation of selleck kinase inhibitor silver nanoparticles of different sizes (and size distribution) following different rates of formation, as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results shed light on methods to stabilize silver nanoparticles, control their nucleation, and highlight the potential of CNCs in metal nanoparticle synthesis.”
“Many whale (baleen whale or toothed whale) skeletons still contain residual lipids even after an initial osteological preparation. This paper examines the different CP-868596 nmr possibilities of re-treatment. Before a conservation intervention, it was necessary to determine the materials of which bones are made
up. The samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Different compounds were identified: a mineral part (apatite), an organic part (collagen) and lipids. Chromatography analysis yielded a detailed composition of the lipids. It was in fact degraded fat with saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. To remove these lipids, several techniques were identified and tested: enzymatic treatments, supercritical CO2, and green or organic solvents. Esterification catalyzed by lipases could be suitable for a degreasing treatment since the solubility of esters is higher than that of the corresponding fatty acids. The enzymatic treatment acted only on the surface and did not appear to be very efficient. The use of supercritical CO2 was even less effective. Some green solvents can partially extract lipids but prove difficult to eliminate after treatment. The best results for degreasing were achieved using organic solvents.
Although most of the double positive (beta 1(glo)/MC) pups die either in utero or just after GANT61 birth, clear defects in salivary gland morphogenesis such as reduced branching and increased mesenchyme could be seen. Those beta 1(glo)/MC mice that survived into adulthood, however, had hyposalivation due to salivary gland fibrosis and acinar atrophy. Increased TGF-beta signaling was observed in the salivary gland with elevated phosphorylation of Smad2 and concomitant increase in ECM deposition. In particular, aberrant TGF-beta 1 overexpression caused salivary gland hypofunction in this mouse model because of the replacement of normal
glandular parenchyma with interstitial fibrous tissue. These results further implicate TGF-beta in pathological cases of salivary gland inflammation and fibrosis that occur with chronic infections PR-171 solubility dmso in the glands or with the autoimmune disease, Sjogren’s syndrome, or with radiation therapy given to head-and-neck cancer patients. Laboratory Investigation (2010) 90, 543-555; doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2010.5; published online 8 February 2010″
“The AID/APOBEC family of enzymes in higher vertebrates converts cytosines in DNA or RNA to uracil. They play a role in antibody maturation and innate immunity against viruses, and have also been implicated in the demethylation of DNA during early embryogenesis. This is based in part on reported ability of
activation-induced deaminase (AID) to deaminate 5-methylcytosines (5mC) to thymine. We have reexamined this possibility for AID and two members of human APOBEC3 family using a novel genetic system in Escherichia coli.
Our results show that while all three genes show strong ability to convert C to U, only APOBEC3A is an efficient deaminator of 5mC. To confirm this, APOBEC3A was purified partially and used in an in vitro deamination assay. We found that APOBEC3A can deaminate 5mC efficiently and this activity is comparable to its C to U deamination activity. When the DNA-binding segment of AID was replaced with the corresponding segment from APOBEC3A, the resulting hybrid had much higher ability to P505-15 molecular weight convert 5mC to T in the genetic assay. These and other results suggest that the human AID deaminates 5mC’s only weakly because the 5-methyl group fits poorly in its DNA-binding pocket.”
“Multidrug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. One of the basic mechanisms of resistance is active efflux of distinct drugs from cells. Export of toxic compounds from bacterial cells is mediated by proteins of 5 distinct families: MF, SMR, ABC, RND and MATE. The substrate spectrum of efflux pumps includes antibiotics, chemotherapeutics and detergents. Genes that determine resistance can be located on chromosomes or mobile elements (plasmids, transposons, integrons).