The lack of gyrA mutations in some isolates together with the presence of parC mutations in six other isolates is a unique finding. Although the Thr57Ser substitution in ParC has been reported previously
in Salmonella, it is detected less frequently compared with the more common gyrA mutations and typically occurs concomitantly with double gyrA mutations (Piddock et Obeticholic Acid supplier al. 1998; Baucheron et al., 2005; Hopkins et al., 2005). The Thr57Ser mutation in parC was first reported by Ling et al. (2003) in Salmonella isolates with a wild-type DNA gyrase and others possessing single gyrA mutations, wherein the first were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (MIC=0.06 μg mL−1), and the latter demonstrated a twofold increased resistance. More recently, Baucheron et al. (2005) reported that the Thr57Ser ParC substitution was not involved in quinolone resistance in their isolates. Also, Cui et al. (2009) reported an identical ParC substitution in a ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Rissen isolate that did not carry any other target gene mutation, qnr alleles nor an aac-(6′)-Ib-cr gene. In addition, the same polymorphism
was recently encountered in a number of non-Typhimurium isolates and the resistant phenotype could not be linked with this alteration because susceptible isolates harboured identical mutations (Gunell et al., 2009). Thus, we also sequenced the parC gene of Ipilimumab 10 randomly selected quinolone-susceptible isolates from this collection representing five serotypes. Thr57Ser substitution was identified in nine of 10 of these isolates (data not shown), Carbohydrate supporting the view that this is a common polymorphism in serotypes other than Typhimurium. In view of current knowledge regarding quinolone resistance mechanisms, it is unclear whether secondary target mutations alone can lead to the development of high-level quinolone resistance (Ling et al., 2003; Baucheron et al., 2005; Cui et al., 2009; Gunell et al., 2009). PCR analysis of the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates did not detect aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qepA, qnrA nor qnrS genes. Four isolates were positive for qnrB (Table 4): one Infantis (S20), two Uganda isolates (S24, S38) and one
serovar 6,7:d:- isolate (S75). The MICs of nalidixic acid in these isolates varied from 32 to 256 μg mL−1. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of the qnrB19 allele in all cases. Multiple plasmids were present in nine isolates (data not shown) while four other isolates (denoted as S37, S45, S47 and S51) lacked detectable plasmids. In the plasmid-positive qnrB19 isolates S20, S24, S38 and S75, several other low-molecular-weight plasmids ranging in size between 1 and 3 kb were also noted (data not shown). When analysed by PCR designed to amplify ColE-like plasmids, amplicons of 2.7 kb were recovered. Among these, two distinct MboII RFLP profiles were observed, which were identical for three isolates (S20, S24, and S38), and different for isolate S75 (data not shown).