The authors would like to thank CNPQ (IC grant: Flávia C. U. Katayama) and FAPESP for the financial support (process numbers 2009/02258-0, 2009/06364-9). “
“This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. Please this website see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted as the authors have plagiarized part of a published PhD thesis entitled “Studies on the characterization
and purification of recombinant Bt-insecticidal proteins and development of polyclonal antibody based Elisa kit”, awarded to Dr. Abhishek Ojha (International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi) ON-01910 concentration on 23rd September 2008 by the University of Lucknow, India. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such, this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and
apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process. “
“The authors regret that the Highlights provided for this article were incorrect. The correct Highlights are reported below: The LC–MS/MS analysis accelerated the quantitative analysis. ► The concentration of (+)-catechin in the coconut water was 0.344 μg/mL. ► The concentration of (−)-epicatechin in the coconut water was 0.242 μg/mL. ► Results obtained in this study will serve as quality control. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. “
“Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species
(RNS) are products of normal cellular metabolism and they are well recognized for playing a dual role in living systems Erastin once their effects can be either harmful or beneficial. The term ROS includes oxygen-derived radicals such as superoxide radical (O2 −), peroxyl radical (ROO ), hydroxyl radical (HO ), and non-radical species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen (1O2), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) (Choe & Min, 2006), whilst RNS includes mainly the nitric oxide radical ( NO) and non-radical species, such as peroxynitrite anion (ONOO−) (Halliwell & Gutteridge, 2007, chap. 9). At moderate concentrations, ROS and RNS can be involved in cellular responses to injury, e.g. in the defense against infectious agents, and also in cellular signalling systems.