Clin Sci (Lond) 113:1–13CrossRef 5 Norman AW (2008) A vitamin D

Clin Sci (Lond) 113:1–13CrossRef 5. Norman AW (2008) A vitamin D nutritional cornucopia: new insights concerning the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population. Am J Clin Nutr 88:1455–1456CrossRefPubMed 6. Erkkola M, Kaila M, Nwaru BI et al (2009) Maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy is inversely associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in 5-year-old children. Clin Exp Allergy 39:875–882CrossRefPubMed

7. Stene LC, Ulriksen J, Magnus P, Joner G (2000) Use of cod liver oil during pregnancy associated with lower risk of Type I diabetes in the offspring. Diabetologia 43:1093–1098CrossRefPubMed 8. Karatekin G, Kaya A, Salihoğlu O, Balci ITF2357 clinical trial H, Nuhoğlu A (2009) Association of subclinical vitamin D deficiency in newborns with acute lower respiratory infection and their mothers. Eur J Clin Nutr 63:473–477CrossRefPubMed 9. Weiler H, Fitzpatrick-Wong S, Selleckchem GDC 0449 Veitch R et al (2005) Vitamin D deficiency and whole-body and femur bone mass relative to weight in healthy newborns. CMAJ 172:757–761PubMed 10. Viljakainen HT, Saarnio E, Hytinantti T et al (2010) Maternal vitamin D status determines

bone variables in the newborn. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:1749–1757CrossRefPubMed Cell Cycle inhibitor 11. Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC et al (2006) Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet 367:36–43CrossRefPubMed 12. nearly Wells JC, Chomtho S, Fewtrell MS (2007) Programming of body composition by early growth and nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc 66:423–434CrossRefPubMed 13. Lanham SA, Roberts C, Cooper C, Oreffo RO

(2008) Intrauterine programming of bone: Part 1. alteration of the osteogenic environment. Osteoporos Int 19:147–156CrossRefPubMed 14. Zhou S, LeBoff MS, Glowacki J (2010) Vitamin D metabolism and action in human bone marrow stromal cells. Endocrinology 151:14–22CrossRefPubMed 15. Neave N, Laing S, Fink B, Manning JT (2003) Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance. Proc Biol Sci 270:2167–2172CrossRefPubMed 16. Gluckman PD, Hanson MA (2004) The developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome. Trends Endocrinol Metab 5:183–187 17. Tanner JM (1989) The organisation of the growth process. In: Foetus into man: Physical growth from conception to maturity, 2nd edn. Castlemead Publications, Ware, England, pp 165–177 18. Rizzoli R, Boonen S, Brandi ML, Burlet N, Delmas P, Reginster JY (2008) The role of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis. Bone 42:246–249CrossRefPubMed 19. Lips P, Bouillon R, van Schoor NM et al (2009) Reducing fracture risk with calcium and vitamin D. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 10: [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 19744099 20.

CrossRef 54 Hirayama H, Takami H, Inoue A, Horikoshi K: Isolatio

CrossRef 54. Hirayama H, Takami H, Inoue A, Horikoshi K: Isolation and characterization of toluene-sensitive mutants from Pseudomonas putida IH-2000. FEMS

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The autoinhibitory domain acts as a pseudosubstrate, blocking acc

The autoinhibitory domain acts as a pseudosubstrate, blocking access to the catalytic site [11]. Ca2+/calmodulin binding to the regulatory domain causes a conformational change in Ca2+/CaM kinases exposing the catalytic domain by removing the autoinhibitory domain. This enables the binding of the substrate and its subsequent phosphorylation [9, 11]. The Ca2+/calmodulin kinases constitute a family of related kinases that includes CaMKK, myosin light chain kinase and CaMKI to CaMKIV. The role of CaMKs in mammalian systems,

particularly LCZ696 ic50 in neurons is well established [12], while their presence and role in fungi is not fully documented. CaMKs have been described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae [13], Aspergillus nidulans [[14–17]], Schizosaccharomyces pombe [18] and Neurospora crassa [19], among others. Whole genome sequencing projects also show the presence

of hypothetical proteins homologous to CaMK in many other fungi. In S. cerevisiae, the CaMKs function in the survival of pheromone-induced growth arrest, salt tolerance and thermotolerance [20]. In the filamentous fungus A. nidulans, the disruption of the CaMK encoding genes, CMKA and CMKB was reported to be lethal [14, 15]. In this fungus, CaMK is required for progression through the nuclear division Selleckchem MK5108 cycle [16]. In S. schenckii, we described a CaMK encoded by the sscmk1 gene (GenBank accession no. AY823266) [21]. The SSCMK1 cDNA encoded a protein of 407 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 45.6 kDa. The analysis of the derived amino acid sequence revealed a calcium/calmodulin kinase containing the 12 conserved sub-domains necessary for a functional serine/threonine protein kinase [22] and a serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic domain. OSI-027 datasheet Experiments using three different inhibitors of the CaMK pathway, W-7, KN-62 and lavendustin C [[23–27]], showed that they inhibited the re-entry of yeast cells into the budding cycle [21]. This observation was the first evidence of the

involvement of a calcium/calmodulin pathway in the regulation of dimorphism in S. schenckii [21]. Traditionally, gene function analysis have been performed by examining the phenotypic or biochemical changes observed in organisms harbouring a mutation in the gene of interest or by gene knockout studies [28]. In Sitaxentan this respect S. schenckii has been considered a genetically intractable organism. In the case of S. schenckii no successful transformation protocol has been implemented. In many other fungi, the transformation process has proven laborious, time-consuming and has potential disadvantages such as non-homologous recombination. Alternatively, RNA-mediated gene silencing has been used to manipulate gene expression in eukaryotic organisms and fungi [[29–32]]. In fungi, RNA-mediated gene silencing has been demonstrated in many species [31]. To date, there are no reports of the use of RNAi for the study of gene function in S. schenckii.

Hui KC, Ong HC, Lee PF, Dai JY: Effects of AlOx-cap layer on the

Hui KC, Ong HC, Lee PF, Dai JY: Effects of AlOx-cap layer on the luminescence and photoconductivity of ZnO thin films. Appl Phys Lett 2005, 86:152116.CrossRef 55. Jiao Y, Zhu HJ, Wang XF, Shi L, Liu Y, Peng LM, Li Q: A simple route to controllable growth of

ZnO nanorod arrays on conducting substrates. Cryst Eng Comm 2010, 12:940–946.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SK carried out the experimental parts on the sample preparation and characterization and drafted the manuscript. CF and SA participated in the statistical analysis and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Chemotherapy is an important method of adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer. Gemcitabine, 2′,2′-difluoro-2′-deoxycytidine, see more remains the standard of use and has more significant clinical check details benefit than fluorouracil (5-FU) (clinical benefit response, 23.8% of gemcitabine treated patients vs. 4.8% of 5-FU-treated patients, p = 0.0022) [1, 2]. However, gemcitabine has a short half-life in vivo and will be rapidly and extensively decomposed to inactive products in the blood, liver, kidney, and other tissues by cytidine deaminase [3]. For example, at the standard dose of 1,000 mg/m2, a patient’s plasma gemcitabine

concentration dropped to only 0.4 μg/mL in 1 h after intravenous infusion, considerably below the 5-μg/mL optimal plasma concentration for cancer cell inhibition [4]. Thus, a larger dose is necessary, while it poses a greater risk of side effects. It has been documented BAY 80-6946 concentration that change in the formulation of gemcitabine might be a way to reduce side effects and improve the drug biopharmaceutical features [5]. For example, Paolino et al. found that gemcitabine-loaded PEGylated unilamellar liposomes could promote the concentration of the drug inside the tumor and increase the plasmatic half-life of gemcitabine [3]. Moreover, this formulation did not display Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK any blood toxicity. Of the various formulations available, nanospheres with a mean diameter of 10 to 1,000 nm are

widely used as carriers in drug delivery systems in clinical applications [6, 7]. They have some potential chemotherapeutic advantages for the treatment of tumors, including pancreatic cancer. Firstly, they can be biodegradable after intravenous injection. Secondly, owing to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects, nanospheres loaded with drugs can release drugs slowly and deposit them in the target organ so that their toxicity would be enhanced in tumor tissues while reduced in normal tissues [8–10]. Furthermore, tumor cells, Kupffer cells, and mononuclear phagocyte system have higher phagocytotic rates for uptaking nanoparticles than other tissue cells. Therefore, the nanospheres loaded with drugs could be targeted to tumor, the liver, or spleen [11].

006) Differences between the

MAP strains were not formal

006). Differences between the

MAP strains were not formally statistically significant (p=0.06) although the control virulent strain JD87/107 showed an increase in mean rank spleen weight percentage between weeks 4 and 8, and 316FUK2001 had an increase between weeks 8 and 12. There was no statistical evidence for differences in the mean levels of liver weight expressed as a percentage of body weight either for different strains or over time for any of the MAP strains (p = 0.2). However, there was some evidence of a difference between the means for the MAP strains and the lower mean weights associated with PBS (p = 0.018). MAP was recovered from the liver tissue of mice four weeks post inoculation in all groups except the control group inoculated with PBS. By 12 weeks post infection, MAP was recovered from the tissues of only one mouse Fedratinib in vitro inoculated with vaccine strain 2eUK2001 (mean count 46 cfu/g), from 6 mice inoculated with IIUK2001 (mean Small molecule library counts between 46 and 315 cfu/g) and from all the mice inoculated with the virulent JD87/107 strain (mean counts 1.4-7 × 106 cfu/g) suggesting attenuation of each of the vaccine strains (Figure  2a). Mean rank counts increase over time for the JD87/107 strain, while dropping for all the other MAP

strains, this being most rapid for the 2eUK2001 strain but ultimately most notable for strain 316FUK2001. Statistical assessment HDAC inhibitor drugs of the effect of the strain by time interaction on the mean rank count indicate that differences exist in

the abilities of the MAP vaccine strains to survive or persist in mice (p=0.02).BMC1010 Figure 2 Virulence assessment of vaccine (2eUK2001, 316FUK2001, IIUK2001) and wild type (JD87/107) MAP strains in a mouse model. A. Quartile-Based Box and Whisker plots of bacterial load (CFU/g) in the liver at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-infection. B. Quartile-Based Box and Whisker plots of mean ranked density of leucocyte clusters in the liver at 4, 8 and 12 weeks Progesterone post-infection. C. Quartile-Based Box and Whisker plots of mean ranked density of leucocyte clusters with AFB in the liver at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-infection. * indicates an unusually large or small observation (outlier). Values beyond the whiskers are outliers. The top of the box is the third quartile −75% of the data values are less than or equal to this value. The bottom of the box is the first quartile −25% of the data values are less than or equal to this value. The median is shown within the box. The whiskers extend to the highest and lowest data values which have not been identified as outliers. Infections of the liver result in multifocal hepatitis characterised by clusters of inflammatory cells.

) Walp ) grow under limited and favorable water conditions in Sen

) Walp.) grow under limited and favorable water conditions in Senegal (West Africa). Afri J Biotech 2003, 21:13–22. 10. World reference base for soil resources In World Soil Resources Report 84. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, FAO; 2001. 11. Junk G, Svec H: The absolute abundance of the nitrogen isotopes in the atmosphere and compressed gas from various sources. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 1958, 14:134–243.CrossRef

12. Mariotti A: Atmospheric nitrogen is a reliable 4EGI-1 price standard for natural 15 N abundance measurements. Nature 1983, 303:685–687.CrossRef 13. Robinson D, Handley LL, Scrimgeour CM, Gordon DC, Forster BP, Ellis RP: Using stable isotope natural abundances (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) to integrate the stress responses of wild barley ( Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch.) genotypes. J Exp Bot 2000, 51:41–50.PubMedCrossRef 14. Pausch RC, Charles L, Mulchi CL, Lee EH, small molecule library screening Meisinger JJ: Use of 13 C and 15 N isotopes to investigate O selleck chemicals 3 effects on C and N metabolism in soybeans. Part II. Nitrogen uptake, fixation, and partitioning. Agric Ecosyst Environ 1996, 60:61–69.CrossRef 15. Shearer G, Kohl DH: N 2 -fixation in field settings: Estimations based on natural 15 N abundance. Aust J Plant Physiol 1986, 13:699–756. 16. Maskey SL, Bhattarai S, Peoples MB, Herridge DF: On-farm measurements of nitrogen fixation by winter and summer legumes

in the Hill and Terai regions of Nepal. Field Crops Res 2001, 70:209–221.CrossRef 17. Dakora FD, Atkins CA, Pate JS: Effect of NO 3 on N 2 fixation and nitrogenous solutes of xylem in two nodulated West African geocarpic legumes, Kersting’s bean ( Macrotyloma geocarpum L.) and Bambara groundnut (

Vigna subterranea L.). Plant Soil 1992, 140:255–262.CrossRef 18. Krasova-Wade T, Neyra M: Optimization of DNA isolation from legume nodules. Lett Appl Microbiol 2007, 45:95–99.PubMedCrossRef 19. Laguerre G, Allard MR, Charnay MP, Louvrier P, Mazurier SI, Rigottier-Gois L, Armager N: Flucloronide Typing of rhizobia by PCR DNA fingerprinting and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of chromosomal and symbiotic gene regions: applications to Rhizobium leguminosarum and its different biovars. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996, 60:56–63. 20. Willems A, Coopman R, Gillis M: Comparison of sequence analysis of 16S – 23S rDNA spacer regions, AFLP analysis and DNA-DNA hybridisation in Bradyrhizobium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2001, 51:623–632.PubMed 21. Thomspson JD, Gibson TJ, Piewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG: The CLUSTAL X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucl Acids Res 1997, 25:4876–4882.CrossRef 22. Saitou RR, Nei M: A neighbour-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 1987, 44:406–425. 23. Felsenstein J: Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap.

Bacterial and firefly luciferases have different peak emission le

Bacterial and firefly luciferases have different peak emission length of 410 nm and 610 nm, respectively [30]. Importantly compared to the bacterial luciferase, the firefly

luciferase has stronger light emitting activity and can be separately measured in vivo by BLI after systemic administration of its substrate luciferin. BLI signals from the bacterial luciferase can then be subtracted from firefly BLI signals for solely quantification of Ifnb1 induction levels. One day after inoculation with Lmo-InlA-mur-lux or Lmo-EGD-lux we detected the first firefly luciferase Selleckchem Tucidinostat signals in the spleen and cervical lymph nodes (Figure 6B) as described previously for an intravenous Listeria infection model [24]. At this timepoint, light signals from replicating bacteria were not yet

visible (Figure 6A). Host bioluminescent signals had similar intensities in Lmo-InlA-mur-lux find more and Lmo-EGD-lux infected IFN-β-reporter mice at 24 h p.i., although two out of five Lmo-InlA-mur-lux infected animals showed a more intensive induction of the IFN-β-reporter compared to Lmo-EGD-lux infected animals (Figure 6B). At 2 d.p.i., IFN-β reporter signals in mice infected with either bacterial strain were further increased and then also detectable in the intestine and the liver. The intensities of the firefly luciferase signals increased further at days 3 and 4 p.i. and became more pronounced in Lmo-InlA-mur-lux infected mice as compared to Lmo-EGD-lux infected animals (Figure 6B and C). At 5 d.p.i., two Lmo-InlA-mur-lux and one Lmo-EGD-lux infected mice which had displayed high IFN-β reporter signals on earlier timepoints of the infection developed severe listeriosis (Figure 6B) and succumbed to the infection or had to be euthanized for ethical reasons. This demonstrated, in line with previous studies, that high levels of IFN-β production are associated with elevated mortality rates in listeriosis [31, 32]. Overall, in the Lmo-InlA-mur-lux infected experimental cohort, 3 out of 5 mice succumbed to the infection TEW-7197 mw whereas in the Lmo-EGD-lux experimental cohort only 1 animal out of 5 did not survive the infection. This demonstrated, in line HAS1 with previous

studies, that high levels of IFN-β production are associated with elevated mortality rates in listeriosis [31, 32]. Thus, taken together murinised Listeria induces higher levels of IFN-β in orally challenged mice compared to non-murinised Listeria. Figure 6 Oral infection challenge with murinised Lmo-InlA-mur-lux is associated with elevated IFN-β induction. Albino IFN-β-reporter (Ifnb1 tm2.2Lien ) mice on a C57BL/6J genetic background were infected intragastrically with 5 × 109 CFU Lmo-EGD-lux or Lmo-InlA-mur-lux (n = 5). At the indicated timepoints, mice were first analysed for dissemination of bioluminescent L. monocytogenes as described for Figure 1 (A) and then subsequently i.v. injected with luciferin and monitored for firefly luciferase activity as a reporter of IFN-β induction (B), see Methods.

Case presentation A 83-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to o

Case presentation A 83-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital due to a low energy fracture of her left hip. The initial assessment in the Emergency Department revealed pallor, tachycardia

and a systolic blood pressure of 110 mmHg. Her past medical history included coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and depression for which the patient was under medication over the last three years. On her way to the radiology department the patient sustained a cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) started immediately and she was intubated. CPR was successful and the patient was subsequently transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). During her stay in the ICU, the vasoconstricting agent noradrenaline had to be installed in order to support her circulation and selleck chemical after a few hours she developed increasing abdominal distension and severe metabolic acidocis (PH = 7.14 with

a Standard Base Excess = − 13.6 mEq/L). The patient underwent a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examination from the dome of the diaphragm to the symphysis pubis with a 6-row multidetector CT (Philips, Brilliance 6); using biphasic CT protocol for the abdomen without oral contrast administration. A 120 ml non-ionic contrast medium (350mg/ml iobitridol) and 50 ml of normal selleck chemicals llc saline flush were administered intravenously with a power injector at a flow Selleckchem ZD1839 rate 3mls/s, with scan delay for starting arterial and portal-venous phases at 10s and 100s, respectively. Image acquisitions parameters were: 5 mm slice thickness, slice collimation of 1.5 mm, pitch 1, 140 kV and 120mAs. In the arterial phase, MDCT showed at least two focal areas of high attenuation (> 90 HU) within the lumen of the ascending colon and caecum suggestive of active bleeding [11]. Axial CT images at the level of the upper and the middle abdomen demonstrated thickened caecal and ascending colon wall (up to 11.5 mm) [12, 13] with increased

density due to intravenous contrast enhancement, pericaecal fat stranding and low-attenuation areas of intraperitoneal fluid at the root of the mesentery, at the perihepatic and Morrison’s spaces (Figures 1 2). No endoluminal defect of mesenteric arteries and veins was noted. Figure 1 Axial CT image at arterial phase demonstrates a AZD9291 thickened caecal wall. A focal area of high attenuation suggesting active bleeding is seen in the lumen of the caecum. Figure 2 Axial CT image at venous phase shows intraperitoneal fluid and pericaecal fat stranding. The above CT findings were suggestive of intestinal ischaemia and in association with the patient’s deterioration an exploratory laparotomy was undertaken which revealed ischaemia of the terminal ileum and extensive colonic necrosis sparing only the proximal third of the transverse colon. The rectum was also spared. The terminal ileum and the entire colon were resected and an end ileostomy was fashioned through the right abdominal rectus muscle sheath.

This schematic is based largely on the work of Schoenhofen et al

This schematic is based largely on the work of Schoenhofen et. al. Please refer to [14, 18] and references within for more detailed descriptions of the enzymes and intermediates of these pathways. Phylogenetic comparisons were performed to provide additional insights into the potential functions of Leptospira nonulosonic acid biosynthesis enzymes. We included in the phylogenetic Veliparib purchase analysis the well-characterized enzymes of Campylobacter jejuni that participate in parallel pathways of legionamimic, pseudaminic, and neuraminic acid synthesis [14, 17–21]. A schematic of these biosynthetic pathways is shown in Figure 5, noting the structural differences between neuraminic (sialic), legionamimic, and pseudaminic

Ro 61-8048 cell line acids. These different NulOs are used by C. jejuni to modify a variety of different surface structures including the O-antigen of lipooligosaccharides, flagellin, and other surface proteins. To add further resolution to our

phylogenetic analysis, we also included NulO biosynthetic enzymes from two Photobacterium profundum genome strains (3TCK and SS9), previously demonstrated to synthesize legionamimic and pseudaminic acids respectively [16]. In addition, homologous enzymes from other Leptospira genomes (L. noguchii str. 2006001870, L. biflexa serovar Patoc, L. santarosai str. 2000030832, L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550) were included in the phylogenetic analysis to better place the L. interrogans NulO enzymes into context with other putative leptospiral NulO biosynthetic enzymes. The phylogenetic analysis

of L. interrogans NulO biosynthetic enzymes demonstrates PRKD3 that a subset of these enzymes is more closely related to the C. jejuni legionaminic acid biosynthetic enzymes and more distantly related to the pseudaminic acid biosynthetic enzymes (Figure 6). Specifically, the aminotransferases YP_002110 and NP_711788 and the NulO synthetases YP_002108 and NP_711790 in L. interrogans serovars Copenhageni and Lai respectively, are more closely related to legionaminic acid synthesis enzymes and more distantly related to C. jejuni and P. profundum pseudaminic acid synthesis enzymes (Figure 6A-B, note green and pink shading indicates legionaminic acid pseudaminic acid pathways respectively). A similar relationship was found for the predicted epimerase/NDP-sugar hydrolases YP_002107 and NP_711791(not shown). Moreover, we find that both homologs of the putative CMP-NulO synthetases in L. interrogans (YP_002102 and YP_002112 in L1-130 and NP_711786 and NP_711796 in 56601) are more closely related to legionaminic acid and neuraminic acid synthetases than to CMP-pseudaminic acid synthetases (Figure 6C). Note in this figure that CMP-Kdo synthases were included to provide contrast and distinguish between enzymes that likely participate in CMP activation of eight carbon sugars (i.e. Kdo) and nine carbon sugars (i.e. NulOs).

[16, 25], observed a significant decrease

in attachment e

[16, 25], observed a significant decrease

in attachment efficiency in non-flagellated P. aeruginosa mutants compared to the wild type. Twitching motility is a form of surface translocation that is mediated by type IV pili, which are involved in biofilm TNF-alpha inhibitor architecture and are responsible for the formation of VX-680 solubility dmso microcolonies in biofilms [15, 21, 26]. It has been hypothesised that biofilm formation initially requires flagella-dependent association and binding to a surface to allow formation of a single cell monolayer. Individual cells of this monolayer then conglomerate into a number of microcolonies through twitching motility via type IV pili. Once attached and manifesting twitching motility, P. aeruginosa can then form fully mature biofilm structures [8, 21]. Notably, cell motility varies during the different developmental stages and ceases after irreversible attachment, implying the loss of flagella in biofilm bacteria [16], a theory supported by microarray analyses that showed that flagella and type IV pili genes were downregulated in biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells [27]. In contrast, Klausen et al. [28] reported

that flagella and type IV pili were not necessary for initial attachment or biofilm formation, but they did have roles in shaping P. aeruginosa biofilms: whilst both wild type PAO1 and flagella-/pili – mutants formed undifferentiated biofilms consisting of buy PRI-724 small microcolonies in the initial stages, the mature biofilms were structurally very different. It is clear, therefore, that there is a large amount of information about the role of motility in biofilm development,

but its contribution to the infection process is not fully clarified. However the adaptations that bacteria undergo in the CF environment are likely to induce alterations in the biofilm phenotype. In the present work, RAPD profiling was coupled with biofilm formation and motility studies in vitro to gain insight into how motility might be correlated with single or multistrain biofilm formation in CF isolates. Methods Chemicals All chemicals, of analar grade or better were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co., Poole, UK, unless otherwise stated. All agars and broths PJ34 HCl were obtained from Oxoid, UK, except where stated. Bacterial isolates Ninety-six Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were cultured from sputum samples taken from 13 children known to be infected only with P. aeruginosa, who were attending the CF clinic in Belfast City Hospital, N. Ireland at the same time (Andrienne Shaw, pers. Comm. 2003). Isolates were chosen based on their colony morphology on Pseudomonas isolation agar. All isolates were initially confirmed as P. aeruginosa using both the API20 NE identification system (BioMerieux, France) and by subsequent amplification of the P. aeruginosa-specific OprL gene [17].