Nutrient timing Nutrient timing is generally regarded as a nutrit

Nutrient timing Nutrient timing is generally regarded as a nutritional strategy in which precise amounts of particular nutrients are delivered at precise time points, relative to exercise, in order to enhance performance or training effects. This somewhat

general definition has been operationally limited by many to diets that utilize high glycemic carbohydrates prior to, during, and/or following exercise. These carbohydrates are considered vital as they provide an energy source as well as inducing increased insulin levels. As insulin directly Entinostat ic50 influences the production of nitric oxide, vascular musculature is relaxed and circulation into the find more capillary beds of exercising muscles is increased. Carbohydrates, in particular higher glycemic carbohydrates, supply these critical benefits. Low carbohydrate nutrient timing The basic model of low carbohydrate nutrient timing applies specific proven micronutrients for enhanced exercise performance rather than relying on the ingestion of sugar and the subsequent insulin responses. First, reduced carbohydrate intake produces reduced insulin responses which shifts the metabolism to fatty acid utilization. Secondly, various nutritional components can provide additional energy sources and/or produce increased nitric oxide production with subsequent P-gp inhibitor vasodilation. Items

such as creatine and beta alanine can influence energy levels by affecting energy replenishment and acting as an anaerobic buffer. Branched chain Casein kinase 1 amino acids provide a third energy source without which muscle tissue may be consumed with intense exercise. Various micronutrients can increase muscle blood flow to some degree. In particular, glycine proprionyl l-carnitine (GPLC) has been shown to dramatically increase nitric oxide synthesis in response to exercise stresses and to significantly increase exercise

performance with reduced production of lactate. Conclusions The limited research in the area suggests that some athletes can train and compete in certain settings successfully with relatively low intake of dietary carbohydrates. It has been shown that pre-workout supplements containing common ingredients such as creatine, beta alanine, branched chain amino acids can substantially enhance exercise performance without ingestion of additional carbohydrates. Controlled clinical trials are needed to examine the effectiveness of nutrient timing with a low carbohydrate diet in various sports settings.”
“Background Resveratrolis a natural polyphenol found in peanuts and grapes. Resveratrolpossesses antioxidative properties which have shown to reduce the oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Resveratrol also has the ability to attenuate inflammation via inhibiting TNF-a, IL-1β, IL-6, and blocking NF-kB activation.

Photonics Technology Letters IEEE 1998, 10:961–963 CrossRef Compe

Photonics Technology Letters IEEE 1998, 10:961–963.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SYL carried out the electroabsorption design, fabrication, and measurements; participated in the studies of electroabsorption behavior; and drafted the manuscript. SFY conceived of the study and participated in its design and coordination.

ACYN carried out the material studies and participated in the design, studies of the electroabsorption behavior, and manuscript editing. TG participated in the device measurement. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Globally, approximately 600 million tons of rice paddies is produced each year. On an average, 20% of the rice paddy is husk, giving an annual total production of 120 million tons [1]. In Vietnam, the average output of the country is 42 billion tons per year, and this country is the second largest manufacturer of rice in the world. Rice husk (RH) is an OICR-9429 price agricultural waste material that should be eliminated. The chemical composition of RH is similar to that of many common organic fibers, containing cellulose, lignin,

hemicelluloses, and silica, which is the primary component of ash. After burning, the organic composition is decomposed and rice husk ash (RHA) is obtained [1–3]. RHA is one of the most silica-rich raw materials containing about 90% to 98% silica Temsirolimus clinical trial and some amount of metallic impurities (after complete combustion) among the family of other agro-wastes [4–8]. It is important that the silica in RHA exists in the amorphous state and has high surface area [9–13]. Because of these features, silica has many applications, such as sources for synthetic adsorption materials [14–16], carriers, medical additives, fillers in composite materials, etc. [17, 18],

and demonstrates advantages when achieved at nanometer size. Silica is a polymer of silicic acid consisting of inter-linked SiO4 units in a tetrahedral fashion with the general formula SiO2. In nature, it exists as sand, glass, quartz, etc. Naturally occurring silica is crystalline, whereas synthetically obtained silica is amorphous in nature. Silica used in chemical applications is synthesized from either silicate solution Cytidine deaminase or silane reagents [19]. There are various methods to prepare silica nanoparticles. Adam et al. [20] synthesized spherical nanosilica from agricultural biomass as RH via the sol–gel method. The resulting silica particles were shown to be agglomerates with an average dimension of 15 to 91 nm. Jal et al. [21] synthesized nanosilica via the precipitation method, and the resulting nanosilica were found to have a particle size of 50 nm in dimension. However, the sol–gel technique [19, 21–23] is the most common method for silica synthesis. It involves simultaneous hydrolysis and condensation reaction.

Int J Cancer 1998, 77:361–365 PubMedCrossRef 23 Cammarota T: Eco

Int J Cancer 1998, 77:361–365.PubMedCrossRef 23. Cammarota T: Ecografia in Dermatologia. Poletto Editore, Milano; 1998. 24. Barillari G, Ensoli B: Angiogenic effects of extracellular human immodeficiency virus type1 Tat protein and its role in the pathogenesis of AIDS-associated Kaposi’s Sarcoma. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002, 15:310–326.PubMedCrossRef 25. Pyakurel P, Pak F, Mwakigonja AR, Kaaya E, Biberfeld P: KSHV/HHV-8 and HIV infection in Kaposi’s sarcoma development. Infect Agent Cancer 2007, 2:2–4.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions FMS conceived of the

study and participated in its design and coordination. AL made the clinical diagnosis and the

follow up of patients. FE performed the ultrasound and color Doppler analysis. PCF carried out the immunological and virological determinations. IWR-1 chemical structure CC performed the histological diagnosis. ADC coordinated the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript”
“Background Anthracyclines are among the most active drugs in advanced breast cancer, with response rates as single agents of approximately Stattic datasheet 30% to 50%, and anthracycline-based regimens have been shown to determine significant advantages in response rate and progression free survival over non- anthracycline-containing regimens [1, 2]. The potential benefit of conventional anthracyclines, mainly doxorubicin, is limited by the risk of cardiac dysfunction, clearly related to cumulative dose, and as a result it might be necessary to withdraw treatment or to avoid re-treatment even in potential responders patients. To minimize toxic effects, doxorubicin has often been replaced by epirubicin (EPI), known to be as active as the parent compound and with lower toxicity, particularly cardiac toxicity [3–6]. As dose-response concerns, higher EPI doses, both as single agent and in combination regimens, seem to be more efficacious than Interleukin-3 receptor lower doses [7–10]. Vinorelbine (VNB) has established activity as single-agent in breast cancer,

both as first-line and salvage treatment [11, 12], and its good tolerance profile makes it an excellent candidate for combination regimens, so it was a logical step to combine VNB with anthracyclines, and the combination with doxorubicin yielded a 74% of response rate, a median duration of response of 12 months and a median survival of 27.5 months as first-line treatment [13]. Other trials employing this combinations confirmed positive results [14–16]. Preliminary results of a randomized phase III trial comparing VNB 25 mg/m2 on days 1,8 in combination with EPI 90 mg/m2, with EPI as single agent, showed a trend for higher response rate (50% vs 42%) and a significantly longer progression free survival (10.1 vs 8.2 months) for the combination arm [17].

6 ± 11 1) and the cartwheel approach (ß = 8 8 ± 5 9), followed by

6 ± 11.1) and the cartwheel approach (ß = 8.8 ± 5.9), followed by birds (ß = 9.1 ± 6.9). Butterflies showed the lowest turnover (ß = 7.1 ± 8.4). Table 1 Mean species richness per site (and standard deviation) in

the three land cover types surveyed   Plants Birds Butterflies Arable 47.4 ± 12.2 Festuca pratensis Taraxacum officinale Stellaria media Poa angustifolia Elymus repens Medicago sativa Rhinanthus rumelicus Carex hirta Capsella bursa-pastoris Symphytum officinale 6.6 ± 3.2 Alauda arvensis Acrocephalus palustris Sylvia communis Saxicola rubetra Lanius collurio Erithacus rubecula Parus major Fringilla coelebs Phylloscopus collybita Turdus merula 18.0 ± 6.2 Maniola jurtina Melanargia galathea Plebeius argus Coenonympha pamphilus JNK-IN-8 manufacturer Polyommatus icarus Thymelicus sylvestris Leptidea sinapis/juvernica Thymelicus lineolus Everes argiades Aphantopus hyperantus Grassland 61.4 ± 13.1 Trifolium

repens Festuca rupicola Achillea millefolium Poa angustifolia Taraxacum officinale Festuca pratense Anthoxanthum odoratum Crataegus monogyna Plantago lanceolata Trifolium pratense 7.4 ± 4.1 Acrocephalus palustris Alauda arvensis Sylvia communis Saxicola rubetra Saxicola torquata Passer montanus Lanius collurio check details Motacilla flava Emberiza learn more citrinella Parus palustris 20.0 ± 6.1 Maniola jurtina Melanargia galathea Colias hyale/alfacariensis Everes argiades Plebeius argus Leptidea sinapis/juvernica Pieris rapae Polyommatus icarus Coenonympha

pamphilus Aphantopus hyperantus Forest 20.2 ± 7.6 Carpinus betulus Anemone nemorosa Galium odoratum Fagus sylvatica Viola reichenbachiana Quercus petrea Dentaria bulbifera Astrantia major Stellaria holostea Helleborus purpurascens 15.0 ± 2.6 Erithacus rubecula Fringilla coelebs Parus major Turdus merula Dapagliflozin Ficedula albicollis Sturnus vulgaris Sylvia atricapilla Phylloscopus collybita Certhia familiaris Parus palustris 2.5 ± 0.71 Maniola jurtina Argynnis paphia Inachis io Pararge aegeria The most common species for each land cover type are also shown Plant species richness from the two different sampling methods was strongly positively correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.77, df = 17, P < 0.05). Species richness differed between the two approaches most strongly within agricultural fields (Pearson correlation r = 0.04, df = 5, P = 0.9; non-arable sites: r = 0.92, df = 12, P < 0.05). Here, survey plots were selected to be within actual fields for the classical approach, while the random selection of plots in the cartwheel approach more frequently included weed and field edge vegetation. Consequently, estimates of richness were higher using the cartwheel method. There were positive correlations between the site-level richness of plants and butterflies (Pearson correlation r = 0.42, df = 24, P < 0.05; cartwheel approach r = 0.71, df = 14, P < 0.05), but no significant correlations between butterflies and birds (r = −0.

(PDF 25 KB) References 1 Hueck CJ: Type III protein secretion sy

(PDF 25 KB) References 1. Hueck CJ: Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1998, 62:379–433.PubMed NVP-BSK805 2. Jarvis KG, Girón JA, Jerse AE, McDaniel TK, Donnenberg MS, Kaper JB: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli contains a putative type III secretion system necessary for the export of proteins involved in attaching and effacing lesion formation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995, 92:7996–8000.PubMedCrossRef 3. Perry RD, selleck chemicals llc Fetherston JD: Yersinia pestis –etiologic agent of plague. Clin Microbiol Rev 1997, 10:35–66.PubMed 4. Farmer JJ III, Hickman-Brenner FW: The genera Vibrio and Photobacterium . In The prokaryotes. A handbook on the biology of bacteria: ecophysiology, isolation, identification, and application. 2nd edition. Edited by: Balows A, Trüper HG, Dworkin M, Harder W, Schleifer KH. Berlin: Springer-Verlag MEK162 clinical trial KG; 1992:2952–3011. 5. Thompson FL, Iida T, Swings J: Biodiversity of vibrios. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2004, 68:403–431.PubMedCrossRef 6. Rosenberg E, Ben-Haim Y: Microbial diseases of corals and global warming. Environ Microbiol 2002,

4:318–326.PubMedCrossRef 7. Makino K, Oshima K, Kurokawa K, Yokoyama K, Uda T, Tagomori K, Iijima Y, Najima M, Nakano M, Yamashita A, Kubota Y, Kimura S, Yasunaga T, Honda T, Shinagawa H, Hattori M, Iida T: Genome sequence of Vibrio O-methylated flavonoid parahaemolyticus : a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V cholerae . Lancet 2003, 361:743–749.PubMedCrossRef 8. Blake PA, Weaver RE, Hollis DG: Diseases of humans (other than cholera) caused by vibrios. Annu Rev Microbiol 1980, 34:341–367.PubMedCrossRef 9. Honda T, Iida T: The pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the role of the thermostable direct haemolysin and related haemolysin. Rev Med Microbiol 1993, 4:106–113. 10. Nishibuchi M, Kaper JB: Thermostable direct hemolysin gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus : a virulence gene acquired by a marine bacterium. Infect Immun 1995, 63:2093–2099.PubMed 11. Sakazaki R, Tamura

K, Kato T, Obara Y, Yamai S: Studies on the enteropathogenic, facultatively halophilic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus . 3. Enteropathogenicity. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1968, 21:325–331.PubMed 12. Iida T, Yamamoto K: Cloning and expression of two genes encoding highly homologous hemolysins from a Kanagawa phenomenon-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus T4750 strain. Gene 1990, 93:9–15.PubMedCrossRef 13. Nishibuchi M, Kaper JB: Duplication and variation of the thermostable direct haemolysin ( tdh ) gene in Vibrio parahaemolyticus . Mol Microbiol 1990, 4:87–99.PubMedCrossRef 14. Park KS, Ono T, Rokuda M, Jang MH, Okada K, Iida T, Honda T: Functional characterization of two type III secretion systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus . Infect Immun 2004, 72:6659–6665.PubMedCrossRef 15.

Thus, it is necessary to investigate different tumour types and s

Thus, it is necessary to investigate different tumour types and stages in order to determine the role of amphiregulin for Cisplatin resistance. Further studies will determine

the impact of amphiregulin expression for therapy response and outcome in women with breast cancer. Figure 2 Schematic model of Amphiregulin signalling. Amphiregulin induced signaling of the EGFR/ERBB2 receptor tyrosine kinases in Cisplatin resistant MCF-7 cells. Ovarian cancer Clinicians have designated ovarian cancer a “”silent killer”" because, when diagnosed, the disease usually has already spread into the peritoneum [65]. If the cancer is diagnosed while confined to the ovary (localized stage), the 5-year survival rate is PLX3397 over 90%. In contrast, if ovarian cancer is diagnosed after it has metastasized (distant stage), the 5-year survival rate is below 30%. Unfortunately, most cases (68%) are diagnosed at the distant stage. Thus, ovarian cancer has a substantially shorter and more dramatic etiopathology than breast cancer: ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer in the industrialized nations although its first occurrence has a satisfactory clinical response to platinum-based chemotherapy [10]. The reason is that more than 80% of the patients experience an early relapse [66]. The tumour usually reappears in OICR-9429 advanced stage or as metastatic

form of the disease (FIGO III/IV), which is treated in first line with cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy doublets consisting of a Platinum-based compound combined with a Taxane. Target Selective Inhibitor Library Resistance to Platinum-containing compounds is a major Fossariinae obstacle in ovarian cancer therapy and the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Formation of a Cisplatin resistant phenotype after initial drug response usually is entailed with a lethal

course of the disease after a relapse [67]. Cellular defense to Cisplatin evolves as concerted action of growth factors, RTKs, MAPKs and other signal transduction pathways. The emergence of ovarian cancer proceeds with clinically diffuse symptoms [68]. Unfortunately, ovarian cancer is not contemporarily diagnosed because early symptoms like abdominal pain are not regarded as signs of a deadly disease by the patient. When symptoms aggravate, the patient often is already moribund. Ovarian cancer incidence peaks in the sixth and seventh life decade [67]. Approximately 5% of ovarian cancer cases have a hereditary background: women bear an increased risk of ovarian cancer if a first-degree relative suffers from (or died of) ovarian or breast cancer [69]. Therapeutic intervention of ovarian carcinomas can have different intentions, first, a curative approach intending the complete removal of the tumour and significant extension of survival time. To achieve this objective, severe side effects are accepted.

For the “Ident and Sim” analysis within the DEAD-box sequences, w

For the “Ident and Sim” analysis within the DEAD-box sequences, we first performed a MUSCLE IWP-2 cell line alignment at the EBI website and then ran the

program at “The Sequence Manipulation Suite”. The structural domains and sequence patterns were first predicted at the Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource (ELM) [81], getting the DEXDc and HELICc RNA selleck chemical helicase domains and the HA2 and Sec63 domains. After that, each specific family motif was checked manually and indicated using the putative consensus motifs described in the literature [43]. For the graphical representation of the amino acid conserved motifs within each family we used the web-based application WebLogo [38], where each logo consists of stacks of symbols, one stack for each position in the sequence. The overall height of the stack indicates the sequence conservation at that position, whereas the height of symbols within the stack indicates the relative frequency of each amino or nucleic acid at that position. The putative

Dicer amino acid sequence analysis was performed using the Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource (ELM) and the ExPASy – PROSITE database [82]. Phylogenetic analysis We used only the helicase domain from the RNA helicases selected to run a multiple alignment (MUSCLE) into the SeaView Version 4.2.12 [83–86]. Then we computed the tree using PhyML v3.0.1 as an external program [86].The design was edited using the

Adenosine triphosphate Tree Figure Drawing Tool Version 1.3.1. Cultures G. lamblia trophozoites were cultured in TYI-S-33 medium at pH7.0 with 10% adult bovine serum and bovine bile (0.5 mg/ml) [87] in anaerobiosis at 37°C. For induction of encystation, the trophozoites were cultured until confluence and then the medium was replaced with encystation medium (porcine bile 0.45%, lactic acid 0.01% and pH 7.8) [88] and grown in anaerobiosis at 37°C during 16 h. For antigenic variation experiments, a Giardia clone expressing VSP-1267 was obtained by serial dilution and selection by immunofluorescence assays using specific monoclonal antibody that recognizes only this VSP, and then cultured until 90% confluence. Induction of antigenic variation was performed according to Torri et al. (manuscript in preparation). RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis Total RNA was extracted from each sample (trophozoites and encystation induction) using Trizol reagent (Invitrogen) according with manufacturer’s instructions. Total RNA was spectrophotometrically quantified and treated with DNase I (Roche) at 37°C for 1 h. After DNase inactivation total RNA was quantified again and several PCRs were performed to check for the presence of genomic DNA.

Using nanofluids, at low nanoparticle concentrations, in minichan

Using nanofluids, at low nanoparticle concentrations, in minichannels or microchannels can be considered as the potential revolution in heat transfer enhancement processes for many industries’ applications.   Acknowledgment The authors of this article would like to thank the French Ministry of Industry and Commerce (DGCIS) for the funding of this work, which is integrated in the European project OPERANET-2 labeled by Celtic-Plus. References 1. Harirchian T, Garimella SV: Microchannel size

effects on local flow boiling heat transfer to a dielectric fluid. J Heat and Mass Trans 2008, 51:3724–3737.CrossRef Akt inhibitor 2. Kandlikar SG: A general correlation for saturated two-phase flow boiling heat transfer inside horizontal and vertical tubes. J Heat Trans 1990, 112:219–228.CrossRef 3. Bowers MB, Mudawar I: Two-phase Selleckchem VS-4718 electronic cooling using mini-channel and micro-channel heat sinks: part

1-design criteria and heat diffusion constraints. ASME J Electron Packag 1994, 116:290–197.CrossRef 4. Qu W, Mudawar I: Flow boiling heat transfer in two-phase micro-channel heat sinks-II. Annular two phase flow model. J Heat Mass Trans 2003, 46:2773–2784.CrossRef 5. Liu D, Garimella SV: Flow boiling heat transfer in microchannels. J Heat Trans 2007, 129:1321–1332.CrossRef 6. Shah MM: A new correlation for heat transfer during subcooled boiling in pipes and annuli. ASHRAE Trans 1976, 83:202–217. 7. Chen T, Garimella SV: Measurements and high-speed visualization of flow boiling of a dielectric fluid in a silicon microchannel heat sink. J Multiphase Flow 2006,

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Statistical analysis Experimental data were analyzed with the SPS

Statistical analysis Experimental data were analyzed with the SPSS software and compared

using the Student’s t-test. Differences with a P value of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Effect of saeRS deletion on S. epidermidis biofilm formation In order to explore the influence of saeR and saeS on S. epidermidis biofilm formation, an S. epidermidis 1457ΔsaeRS mutant (SE1457ΔsaeRS) and a complemented strain (SE1457saec) were constructed using the shuttle plasmids pMAD and pBT2, respectively. The biofilm-forming ability of SE1457ΔsaeRS on polystyrene plates was higher compared to the parental strain. Although it did not reach the level of the wild-type Quisinostat strain, complementation of saeRS resulted in decreased biofilm formation (Student’s t-test,

P < 0.05) (Figure 1). The growth curves of SE1457ΔsaeRS and the parental strain were similar in either aerobic or anaerobic growth conditions (Additional file 1: Fig. S1). Figure 1 Effect of DNaseI on SE1457 ΔsaeRS , SE1457, and SE1457 saec biofilm formation. SE1457ΔsaeRS, SE1457, and SE1457saec biofilms were washed and then stained with crystal violet. Their retained biomass was quantified by measuring the absorbance of each well at 570 nm. Biofilms were formed GS-1101 in vivo in the absence (black bars) or presence of DNase I (28 U/200 μL/well) (white bars). Mean values and standard deviations from three independent experiments are shown. (*), P < 0.05. WT, SE1457; SAE, SE1457ΔsaeRS; SAEC, SE1457saec. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of biofilms on catheters showed that SE1457ΔsaeRS biofilms contained more extracellular matrix compared to SE1457 and SE1457saec

biofilms (Figure 2A). In planktonic cultures, intercellular adhesion of the SE1457ΔsaeRS and the wild-type strain was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). While thread-like material between SE1457ΔsaeRS cells was observed, such material was rarely found between parental strain cells (Figure 2B). Figure 2 SEM and TEM observations of SE1457 ΔsaeRS and wild-type strain. (A) Biofilms of SE1457ΔsaeRS, SE1457, Megestrol Acetate and SE1457saec after 24 h of growth on hydroxyapatite disks were observed by SEM. Arrows show the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) (10,000× magnification). (B) Planktonic cells of SE1457ΔsaeRS and SE1457 cultured for 24 h were observed by TEM. Cell-cell accumulations in SE1457ΔsaeRS are Roscovitine circled; arrow indicates the thread-like material linking neighboring cells. WT, SE1457; SAE, SE1457ΔsaeRS; SAEC, SE1457saec. Effect of saeRS deletion on the autolysis of S. epidermidis To examine the effect of saeRS deletion on autolysis, Triton X-100-induced autolysis of SE1457ΔsaeRS, SE1457, and SE1457saec was analyzed. Bacterial cells were harvested at the mid-exponential phase grown in TSB medium containing 1 M NaCl. Following the addition of 0.

Chronobiol Int 2010, 27:640–652 PubMedCrossRef 17 Roelands B, Me

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exercise. J Appl Physiol 1984, 56:102–8.PubMed 25. Baker LB, Lang JA, Kenney WL: Change in body mass accurately and reliably predicts change GDC-0994 solubility dmso in body water after endurance exercise. Eur J App Physiol 2009, 105:959–967.CrossRef 26. Brancaccio P, Limongelli FM, Paolillo I, Grasso C, Donnarumma V, Rastrelli L: Influence of Acqua Lete® (Bicarbonate Calcic Natural Mineral Water) Hydration on Blood Lactate after Exercise. The Open Sports Med J 2011, 5:24–30. 27. Rudroff T, Staudenmann D, Enoka R: Electromyographic measures of muscle activation and changes in muscle architecture of human elbow flexors during fatiguing contractions. J Appl Physiol 2008, 104:1720–1726.PubMedCrossRef 28. Armstrong RB, find more Warren GL, Warren JA: Mechanism of exercise-induced muscle fibre injury. Sports Med 1991, 12:184–207.PubMedCrossRef 29. Montain SJ, Tharion WJ: Hypohydration and muscular fatigue of the thumb alter median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials. Appl Physiol Nut Met 2010, 35:456–463.CrossRef 30. Oppliger RA, Magnes SA, Popowski LA: Accuracy of urine specific gravity and osmolarity as indicators of hydration status. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Met 2005, 15:236–251. 31. Kessler T, Hesse A: Cross-over study of the influence of bicarbonate-rich mineral water on urinary composition in comparison with sodium potassium citrate in healthy male subjects. Br J Nutr 2000, 84:865–871.PubMed 32.