1A) consistent with a naïve state Upon culture with OVA323–339,

1A) consistent with a naïve state. Upon culture with OVA323–339, CD4+ T cells rapidly upregulated the expression of the early activation marker CD69 and, as indicated by their FSC profile, began to enlarge and undergo blastogenesis (Fig. 1A). CD69 expression remained high on CD4+ T cells in OVA peptide-containing

cultures until day 5 and during this time a CD44hi phenotype was acquired. This indicated ongoing activation of CD4+ T cells in the presence of antigen which was confirmed by continued CFSE dilution until peptide removal (data not shown). CD62L expression https://www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-99021-ct99021-hcl.html was transiently reduced upon culture but after 3 days, even in the presence of OVA peptide, returned to the levels equivalent to that on naïve OT-II cells (Fig. 1A). Upon washing and reculture in the absence of OVA peptide, but in the presence of IL-7, CD69 expression rapidly declined to baseline levels and OT-II T cells developed a CD44hi CD62Lhi phenotype as displayed by central memory T cells 12. Restimulation of OT-II cells recovered from culture demonstrated that a large proportion of the “central memory-like” T cells were capable of rapidly producing the effector cytokines IFN-γ

and IL-2 (Fig. 1B) unlike naïve T cells (data not shown), Torin 1 cost indicating substantial acquisition of rapid effector function. Notably, post-activated OT-II T cells produced little IL-4, IL-17 or IL-10, indicating that these conditions promoted Th1-like differentiation. No Foxp3 expression was detected in CD4+ T cells recovered from these cultures (data not shown). Therefore, we conclude that these culture conditions generate a population of OT-II T cells phenotypically similar to central memory T cells and skewed toward a Th1 phenotype. Using a model in which OVA expression is targeted to DC by the CD11c promoter, we have shown that steady-state presentation of OVA by OVA-expressing DC induces peripheral tolerance in naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 13, 14 and memory and effector CD8+ T cells 4, 15. As the CD11c promoter appears to drive low-level transgene expression in CD11cint cells else 16, which includes plasmacytoid DC, some activated macrophages,

subsets of intraepithelial lymphocytes and NK1.1+ cells, we previously showed that the presentation of immunogenic MHC/OVA peptide complexes was restricted to CD11chi conventional DC 13. Additionally, Taqman qPCR studies have shown OVA message is restricted to DC and not expressed in B and T cells of 11c.OVA mice 15. Therefore, we used this model to test the susceptibility of activated CD4+ T cells to DC-induced peripheral tolerance. To determine whether CD4+ memory T cells were activated by OVA peptides presented by steady-state OVA-expressing DC, cultured OT-II cells were CFSE labeled and transferred to 11c.OVA and nontransgenic controls. Three days after transfer, little CFSE dilution was observed in the spleens or LN of nontransgenic recipients, although a small number of cells appeared to have undergone one or two divisions (Fig. 2A). In 11c.

Activation of Tregs during infection with PyL requires TLR9 signa

Activation of Tregs during infection with PyL requires TLR9 signaling in DCs 10. It is quite possible that Tregs are not activated in IDA mice due to insufficient TLR9 signaling because IDA erythrocytes contain much less hemoglobin/heme (data not shown), the source of a known malaria-derived TLR9 ligand, hemozoin 11. Thus, we analyzed the immune responses in IDA mice. First, we assessed the number of cells

find more involved in protection against malaria in the spleen 6 days after infection with PyL (Fig. 3A). Infection with PyL clearly increased the population of spleen cells. Unexpectedly, the number of whole splenocytes and splenic CD4+CD25– T cells in IDA mice was less than that in control mice. There was no increase in the number of macrophages. IFN-γ production by whole spleen cells in response to ConA

was evaluated using ELISA. Infection of control mice with PyL markedly reduced the production of IFN-γ; however, infection Crizotinib of IDA mice reduced it to an even greater degree (Fig. 3B). The production of IgG antibodies specific for the malaria parasite was also assessed. Humoral immunity to the malaria parasite was induced after infection with PyL in iron-sufficient mice. However, IDA mice had much lower total IgG levels (Fig. 3C). Thus, neither humoral nor cellular responses were enhanced in IDA mice. We further evaluated the functional properties of splenic Tregs by investigating the suppression of TCR-driven T-cell proliferation. CD4+CD25+ T cells isolated from IDA mice were Pregnenolone cultured with CD4+CD25− T cells from uninfected mice in the presence of ConA. Tregs from uninfected mice suppressed proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Infection of iron-sufficient mice with PyL markedly enhanced the suppressive function of Tregs, reflecting Treg activation

(Fig. 3D). Tregs in IDA mice had much stronger suppressive abilities (Fig. 3D), presumably resulting in reduced immune responses in these mice. Again, we saw no evidence for the enhancement of acquired immunity in IDA mice. Finally, to analyze whether acquired immunity is involved in the resistance of IDA mice to malaria, we infected T-cell and iron-deficient athymic nude mice with PyL. As shown previously, IDA euthymic mice showed lower levels of parasitemia and prolonged survival compared with euthymic mice fed with an iron-sufficient diet (Fig. 3E). IDA athymic mice clearly showed lower levels of parasitemia than mice fed with an iron-sufficient diet although they still succumbed to infection with PyL. These results suggest that acquired immunity, in which T cells play a central role, is required to survive infection by PyL, but it is not involved in IDA-associated resistance to malaria during the early phase of infection.

Here, we more closely evaluate, in an in vivo setting in immunoco

Here, we more closely evaluate, in an in vivo setting in immunocompetent mice, the checkpoints at which polyclonal Treg cells exert their inhibitory function. We evaluated the role of Treg cells in the well-characterized model of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE. As previous studies 9 have shown that administration of polyclonal Treg cell to normal mice can partially inhibit the development of EAE, we transferred into recipient mice either Treg cells that had been purified from normal mice and expanded in vitro by stimulation with

anti-CD3 and IL-2 or Treg cells that had been generated from Foxp3− T cells by stimulation in vitro with TGF-β. One day following transfer, the mice were immunized for the induction of EAE. Both groups of Treg cell-treated mice displayed significantly reduced clinical

severity www.selleckchem.com/products/Vorinostat-saha.html as compared with the control group (Fig. 1A, right panel). Endogenous Treg cells also control the development of EAE as mice treated with a partially depleting or inactivating anti-CD25 antibody 10 3 days prior to immunization consistently exhibited an exacerbated disease course (Fig. 1A, left panel). Overall, these studies demonstrate that merely altering the number of Treg cells KU-57788 research buy in vivo can dramatically alter the course of an autoimmune disease. To more thoroughly understand the mechanism(s) for the reduction of disease severity by enhancement of Treg cell numbers, we evaluated the phenotype of the Teff cells that had trafficked into the brain. We isolated the cellular infiltrate from the spinal cords of mice with EAE that had either received or had not received Treg cells, re-stimulated them in vitro with PMA/ionomycin, and evaluated cytokine production

by intracellular Selleck C59 staining. Mice that had received Treg cells had a two-fold reduction in the percentage of central nervous system infiltrating CD4+ Teff cells (Fig. 1B, top), but on a per cell basis, the cytokine profile of these cells was almost identical between the two groups (Fig. 1B, bottom; the two-fold difference in IFN-γ+IL-17+ cells was not a consistently reproducible result). No differences were observed in the production of IL-2, IL-4, or TNF-α, or in the expression of memory/activation markers such as CD44, CD25, or CD69 (data not shown). Thus, the reduced clinical disease most strongly correlates with the reduced percentage of Teff cells that invade the CNS rather than Treg cell-mediated inhibition of Th1/Th17 differentiation or induction of immune deviation leading to the development of a less pathogenic Th2 phenotype.

, 2006) Despite

the fact that all biofilms contain prote

, 2006). Despite

the fact that all biofilms contain proteins, the three proteases tested efficiently degraded only biofilms of strains that do not produce PNAG, demonstrating that, in this case, protein components of the biofilm played an important role check details in stabilizing its intercellular structure. The hydrolytic activity of the dispersin B and proteinase K on biofilm components was confirmed by their direct action on PNAG and the protein fraction of biofilms, respectively (Chaignon et al., 2007). The heterogeneity of the biofilm matrix limits the potential of the monocompound enzyme, and the use of two or several successive treatments may be necessary for sufficient degradation of biofilms produced by clinical staphylococcal strains. Thus, a treatment with dispersin B, followed by a protease (proteinase K or trypsin), may facilitate eradication of biofilms of a variety of staphylococcal strains on inert surfaces. Unfortunately, none of the enzymes tested in this study was able to depolymerize the EC-TA, an important and recurrent component https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Paclitaxel(Taxol).html of staphylococcal biofilms. Finding an enzyme capable of specifically degrading this phosphor-diester polymer could favourably complement the action of the

dispersin B and a protease. We attempted to better understand whether the ability to form a biofilm in vitro was a sufficient and important virulence factor in the development of S. epidermidis infections in vivo. Earlier results of in vivo studies using a tissue cage guinea-pig (TC-GP) animal model concluded that inactivation of the ica locus by mutation did not affect the ability of the mutant to cause a persistent in vivo infection (Fluckiger et al., 2005). Additionally, a number of studies have demonstrated that S. epidermidis and S. aureus ica mutants were still capable of colonizing in a tissue cage

animal model of infection (Francois et al., 2003; Kristian et al., 2004; Fluckiger et al., 2005), suggesting that biofilm is not an important virulence factor in this model. To further address this question, we chose a selection of previously these characterized clinical isolates of S. epidermidis (Table 1) in a TC-GP animal model (Chokr et al., 2007). Our study showed that the (B+, I+, P+) model strain S. epidermidis RP62A develops and maintains an infection in vivo, while the negative (B−, I−, P−) strain S. carnosus TM300 does not. Then, these results were checked with clinical isolates of S. epidermidis, possessing, respectively, both types: (B+, I+, P+) and (B−, I−, P−). Those with the positive type (B+, I+, P+) were shown to cause a persistent infection that might be attributed to their ability to form a biofilm, as demonstrated previously in vitro (Chokr et al., 2006).

2A) In this experimental setting, we also observed a significant

2A). In this experimental setting, we also observed a significant increase https://www.selleckchem.com/products/NVP-AUY922.html in the expression of the activation marker CD38 on B-cell surface after IFN-β treatment (Supporting Information Fig. 2B). Given that this protein is notoriously type I IFN inducible

[20], this result clearly shows that B lymphocytes are target of the IFN-β therapy confirming previous study by Zula et al. [21] who described a rapid activation of IFN signal transduction pathways in B cells present in unseparated blood from RRMS patients soon after IFN-β injection. In the past, we dissected the regulation of TLR7 in maturing monocyte-derived DCs and observed that its transcription was dependent on the endogenous IFN-β release [22]. Thus, to evaluate whether IFN-β therapy would modulate TLR7 expression in MS patients, we first monitored by real-time RT-PCR TLR7 level of transcription, together with that of TLR9, in MS patients versus HDs. It was of great interest to find that PBMCs obtained from MS patients display a clear defect, as compared with those of HDs, in TLR7 expression that was statistically significant (25 HDs and 45 MS patients analyzed) (Fig. 2A). This difference was not observed in the transcription

of TLR9 gene (Fig. 2B), demonstrating that in MS patients, the defective TLR7 expression is specific. Furthermore, we observed that in PBMCs isolated from the same MS patients STI571 in vitro following 1 month of IFN-β therapy, the level of TLR7 mRNA was restored to the level observed in HDs, while that of TLR9 was not modulated (Fig. 2A and B). In the attempt to investigate which TLR7-expressing cell types in the peripheral blood might be responsible for this defect in MS patients, B cells and monocytes were purified from both HDs and MS patients at baseline and 1 month after the beginning of IFN-β therapy, since these two leukocyte populations express TLR7. Data on TLR7 expression in B cells isolated from HDs or MS (7 and 13 individuals, respectively) did not mirror the impairment observed in the context of the

mixed cell population of PBMCs (Fig. 2C and D), although a slightly enhanced level of TLR7 transcription in response to IFN-β Carbohydrate occurred also in this experimental setting. As observed in unseparated PBMCs, TLR9 levels of B cells did not differ in HDs and MS patients irrespective of IFN-β treatment. Interestingly, when the expression of TLR7 was analyzed in monocytes of MS patients (13 individuals), a different picture appeared. Indeed, a lower TLR7 mRNA level was highlighted in monocytes from MS patients than that obtained from HD (8 individuals) and, moreover, also a robust induction was observed in response to IFN-β therapy (longitudinal analysis of 5 patients at baseline and 1 month after IFN-β treatment) (Fig. 2E). TLR9 expression was absent in monocytes (data not shown). These data for the first time indicated a defect in TLR7 signaling in monocytes of MS patients.

The aim of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate the effects

The aim of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate the effects of add-on therapy with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) on changes in the composite ranking of relative risk according to KDIGO guidelines. Benidipine, an L- and T-type CCB, and amlodipine, an L-type CCB to angiotensin PR 171 II receptor blocker (ARB), were examined. Methods: Patients with blood pressure (BP) >130/80 mmHg, an estimated GFR (eGFR) of 30–90 mL/min/1.73 m2, and albuminuria >30 mg/gCr, despite treatment with the maximum recommended dose of ARB, were randomly assigned to two groups. Each group received one of

two treatments: 2 mg benidipine daily, increased to 8 mg daily (n = 52), or 2.5 mg amlodipine daily, increased to 10 mg daily (n = 52). Results: The final doses of benidipine and amlodipine were 6.3 ± 0.3 and 5.4 ± 0.4 mg per day, respectively. After 6 months of treatment, a significant AZD9668 manufacturer and comparable reduction in systolic and diastolic BP was observed in both groups. The eGFR was significantly decreased in the amlodipine group, but there was no significant change in the benidipine group. The decrease in albuminuria in the benidipine group was significantly lower than in the amlodipine group. The composite ranking of relative risk according to the new KDIGO guidelines was significantly improved in the benidipine group; however,

no significant change ADP ribosylation factor was noted in the amlodipine group. Moreover, significantly fewer cases in the benidipine group than the amlodipine group showed a reduced risk category score. Conclusion: The present post-hoc analysis showed that compared to

amlodipine benidipine results in a greater reduction in albuminuria accompanied by an improved composite ranking of relative risk according to the KDIGO CKD severity classification. TEO BOON WEE1,2, TOH QI CHUN1, LAU TITUS2, YANG ADONSIA1, LIN TINGXUAN1, SETHI SUNIL1,2 1National University of Singapore; 2National University Health System Introduction: Stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients retain sodium and water which increases intravascular fluid volume, leading to myocardial stretching and release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). The profile of BNP levels in Asian CKD patients is unclear. We assessed serum BNP levels in a multiethnic-Asian population of stable CKD patients. Methods: We prospectively recruited stable CKD patient (defined as serum creatinine not >20% over 3 months) and performed anthropometry, office blood pressure measurements (Dinamap) according to practice guidelines, and venepuncture. Blood samples were assayed for BNP (Abbott), and creatinine to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the CKD-EPI equation. Data are reported as mean ± SD, or median and interquartile range, where appropriate. Non-normally distributed data were natural log-transformed for analyses.

Systemic delivery of G-1 drove IL-10 production from splenocytes

Systemic delivery of G-1 drove IL-10 production from splenocytes following T-cell activation in culture. It is notable that this effect does not require overt in vivo antigen recognition. This result may reflect that G-1-mediated signalling in naive T cells leads to an alteration

in their resting state, perhaps through transcriptional mechanisms. Another possibility is that there is carryover of G-1 during purification of splenocytes before culture, where antigen presentation is mimicked using stimulatory antibodies, or that the effects are the result of the low levels of T-cell activation inherent in naive mice. Along those lines, we have consistently found a small population of memory cells within the spleen of untreated mice, suggesting low levels BMN 673 mouse of immune activation in ‘naive’ animals (data not shown). It is also possible Erismodegib order that pre-existing

memory T cells are responsible for G-1’s effect in this setting, as G-1 can drive IL-10 secretion from this population (unpublished observation). In agreement with our observations from cultured T cells (Fig. 2), systemic administration of G-1 had no effect on IL-6 or TNF-α secretion. Conversely, we did detect increased secretion of IL-17A following in vivo treatment with G-1, while also observing a decrease in the production of IFN-γ. These differences from results with purified T-cell cultures may reflect the effects of G-1 on other immune populations following in vivo treatment. Such populations may also be contributing to the observed IL-10 secretion, directly or indirectly. Another possibility includes G-1-mediated IL-10 production during the week-long injections of G-1, leading to inactivation of splenic APCs and a decrease in the secretion of Th1-polarizing cytokines like IL-12, and hence to lower IFN-γ production. Th17 cells are localized in high numbers to sites of autoimmune inflammation. Our data suggest that it may be possible to induce IL-10 in situ where large

numbers of Th17 cells persist, through systemic treatment with G-1. The feasibility of this therapeutic approach is suggested by experiments in which IL-10+ Th17 cells differentiated with TGF-β and IL-6 Monoiodotyrosine alone inhibited the development of EAE following adoptive transfer of neuropeptide-reactive Th17 cells.19 This effect was dependent on IL-10 production19 and suggests that such cells can inhibit fully differentiated pathogenic T-cell populations through the secretion of IL-10 in situ, as would likely be required in the case of a viable therapeutic intervention based on the results of our study. While our finding that systemic G-1 could increase IL-17A secretion from murine splenocytes warrants further attention, it must be noted that IL-17A has been shown to exhibit immunosuppressive properties in several settings, including in the development of atherosclerosis43–45 and the induction of T-cell-mediated colitis.

In experiments 1 and 2, infants spontaneously and selectively inf

In experiments 1 and 2, infants spontaneously and selectively informed Raf inhibitor the adult about the aversive material in the location the adult falsely believed to hold her toy. In contrast, in experiment 3, infants informed the ignorant adult about both locations equally. Results reveal that infants expected the adult to commit a specific action mistake when she held a false belief, but

not when she was ignorant. Further, infants were motivated to intervene proactively. Findings reveal a predictive action-based usage of “theory-of-mind” skills at 18 months of age. “
“This study investigates infants’ discrimination abilities for familiar and unfamiliar regional English accents. Using a variation of the head-turn preference procedure, 5-month-old infants demonstrated that they were

able to distinguish between their own South-West English accent and an unfamiliar Welsh English accent. However, this distinction was not seen when two unfamiliar accents (Welsh English and Scottish English) were presented to the infants, indicating they had not acquired the general ability to distinguish between regional HM781-36B manufacturer varieties, but only the distinction between their home accent and unfamiliar regional variations. This ability was also confirmed with 7-month-olds, challenging recent claims that infants lose their sensitivity to dialects at around that age. Taken together, our results argue in favor of an early sensitivity to the intonation system of languages, and to the early learning of accent-specific intonation and potentially segmental patterns. Implications for the development of accent normalization abilities are discussed. “
“Behne, Carpenter, Call, and Tomasello

(2005) showed that 9- to 18-month-olds, but not 6-month-olds, Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase differentiated between people who were unwilling and unable to share toys. As the outcome of the two tasks is the same (i.e., the toy is not shared), the infants must respond to the different goals of the actor. However, visual habituation paradigms have shown an earlier onset of goal awareness. The present study reconciles this disparity by replicating the findings of Behne et al. with both 6- and 9-month-olds, using similar tasks and additional response measures. “
“Infant phonetic perception reorganizes in accordance with the native language by 10 months of age. One mechanism that may underlie this perceptual change is distributional learning, a statistical analysis of the distributional frequency of speech sounds. Previous distributional learning studies have tested infants of 6–8 months, an age at which native phonetic categories have not yet developed. Here, three experiments test infants of 10 months to help illuminate perceptual ability following perceptual reorganization.

Since macrophages play an important role in the pathology of myco

Since macrophages play an important role in the pathology of mycobacterial diseases and cancer, in the present study, selleckchem we evaluated the MIP in live and killed form for macrophage activation potential, compared it with BCG and investigated the underlying mechanisms. High levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), IL-6 and nitric oxide were produced by MIP-stimulated macrophages as

compared with BCG-stimulated macrophages. Prominent up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 was also observed in response to MIP. Loss of response in MyD88-deficient macrophages showed that both MIP and BCG activate the macrophages in a MyD88-dependent manner. MyD88 signalling pathway culminates in nuclear factor-κB/activator protein-1 (NF-κB/AP-1) activation and higher activation of NF-κB/AP-1 was observed in response to MIP.

With the help of pharmacological inhibitors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) -deficient macrophages, we observed the role of TLR2, TLR4 and intracellular TLRs in MIP-mediated macrophage activation. Stimulation of HEK293 cells expressing TLR2 in homodimeric or heterodimeric learn more form showed that MIP has a distinctly higher level of TLR2 agonist activity compared with BCG. Further experiments suggested that TLR2 ligands are well exposed in MIP whereas they are obscured in BCG. Our findings establish the higher macrophage activation potential of MIP compared with BCG and delineate the

underlying mechanism. “
“Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes involved in allergic reactions as well as adipose tissue regulation. IL-5 is required for eosinophil survival; however, the in vivo mechanisms of eosinophil regulation are not fully understood. A transgenic (tg) mouse model with il5 promoter-driven EGFP expression was established for detecting the IL-5-producing cells in vivo. Il5-egfp tg mice expressed high levels of EGFP in gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) cells. EGFP+ cells in GAT were mainly group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). IL-33 preferentially expanded EGFP+ cells and eosinophils in GAT in vivo. EGFP+ ILCs were found to upregulate prg2 mRNA expression in GAT eosinophils. These results demonstrate that ILCs activate eosinophils in GAT. Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase The blockage of IL-33Rα, οn the other hand, did not impair EGFP+ ILC numbers but did impair eosinophil numbers in vivo. GAT eosinophils expressed IL-33Rα, and IL-33 expanded eosinophil numbers in CD90+ cell-depleted mice. IL-33 was further observed to induce the expression of retnla and epx mRNA in eosinophils. These findings demonstrate that IL-33 directly activates eosinophils in GAT, and together with our other findings described above, our findings show that IL-33 has dual pathways via which it activates eosinophils in vivo: a direct activation pathway and a group 2 ILC-mediated pathway. This article is protected by copyright.

This system involves the transfer of ex vivo-activated

This system involves the transfer of ex vivo-activated Roxadustat in vivo syngeneic CD4+ T cells with a measure of in vivo proliferation and IL-2 production and hence has a wide dynamic range that is related directly to T cell proliferation [33]. This model was also used by Sedy et al., and proliferation was inhibited by CHO/mHVEM-expressing cells [9]. Furthermore, several T cell function antagonists have been validated in this model [33]. We found that antibodies that inhibited T cell proliferation in vitro had no significant effect on the antibody-captured IL-2 associated with the in vivo activation of

DO11.10 T cells transferred to syngeneic recipient BALB/c mice. We propose that this may be because an exogenously administered, soluble BTLA-specific selleckchem reagent is unable to interdict the immunological synapse that has formed between an antigen-presenting cell and a T cell in vivo. There are few studies that describe the effects of anti-specific anti-BTLA reagents in vivo (as opposed to soluble HVEM-Fc which can

bind to other molecules). The study by Truong et al. is a novel and interesting study that describes a synergistic improvement in allograft maintenance when the anti-BTLA mAb clone 6F7 is combined with CTLA4-Fc [34]. Specifically, at day 100 post-transplant approximately 40% of the mice treated with CTLA4-Fc alone have survived and approximately 70% of the mice treated with CTLA4-Fc and the mAb 6F7 have survived. This probably represents a statistically significant improvement, but the dynamic range between the two separate treatment groups is moderate. Furthermore, it is unclear if there is a significant improvement in the in vivo phenotypical behaviour Benzatropine and proliferation (i.e. lymphocyte precursor frequency) of the mice treated with CTLA4-Fc plus mAb 6F7, relative to treatment with CTLA4-Fc alone, and these reagents reportedly

do not induce in vitro allospecific unresponsiveness as measured by MLR and CTL assays. In our hands, the anti-BTLA mAb 6F7 does not inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro and it groups to a different epitope on mBTLA relative to the reagents that inhibit T cell proliferation and activation. Hence, we cannot account readily for the reported synergistic improvement in transplant tolerance with the mAb 6F7 that is described in this study. However, differences between different animal facilities and detailed experimental protocols between different laboratories, as well as different preparations of test reagents with varying potencies and pharmacokinetic properties, may provide a partial explanation. It must also be borne in mind that the DO11.