SCIG offers many patients a viable, convenient alternative to IVI

SCIG offers many patients a viable, convenient alternative to IVIG. A logical step forward from the successful use of SCIG in replacement therapy is the use of SCIG in the setting of immunomodulation. Multi-focal motor neuropathy (MMN) is known to be responsive to IVIG therapy. MMN is a serious autoimmune neuropathy characterized by segmental demyelination, conduction block and asymmetric weakness, with relatively preserved muscle bulk. MMN is associated with anti-GM1 antibodies in 50–80% of cases.

Three recent studies of SCIG in patients selleck screening library with MMN who were switched from IVIG show that SCIG was as efficacious as IVIG, as measured by combined dynamometric [28] and the Medical Research Council (MRC) muscle strength click here scores [29]. In a more recent study, patients were switched gradually over 3 weeks from IVIG to SCIG [30]. The majority of patients maintained MRC muscle strength score over the 6-month study. In all three studies, the majority of patients elected to continue SCIG administration at the end

of the study (Table 2). One patient who experienced muscle strength deterioration also continued to use this form of administration [29]. Thus, SCIG showed good efficacy, was preferred by patients with MMN and its use in immunomodulation should be investigated further. SCIG may also be effective in dermatological autoimmune disorders as demonstrated in IVIG-responsive epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA). A case report Histidine ammonia-lyase study of a patient with EBA who was switched to SCIG (0·9 g/kg/month) showed improved clinical outcome [31]. Successful treatment of MMN and EBA suggests that SCIG use can be explored in many other conditions where IVIG is effective. A recent retrospective study offers insight into new ways to improve convenience in SCIG administration. Infusion with a syringe and butterfly needle (rapid push) was compared with the usual pump administration. The rapid push method involves more frequent subcutaneous administration of smaller doses compared

to weekly SCIG. Of 104 patients with PI who had either no previous IgG therapy or had been on IVIG, 74 patients used rapid push administration and 29 used a pump to infuse a 16% SCIG IgG formulation. Patients using rapid push underwent an average of 3·1 infusions per week, and those using pump an average of 2·9 infusions per week. Rapid push was found to be an efficacious alternative, as no difference in mean serum IgG levels was observed between the two different administration methods [32]. Additionally, serum IgG levels achieved with either route of SCIG infusion were higher than those achieved with the previous IVIG therapy, due probably to the frequent administration of smaller doses and the slow transition of IgG into the vascular space. Rapid push infusion thus offers a suitable alternative, for example, when a pump is not available or when high infusion volumes per injection site are not tolerated.

The FICI of endophytic fungal extract with various antibiotics su

The FICI of endophytic fungal extract with various antibiotics such as methicillin, penicillin and vancomycin was 1.0, 0.5 and 0.375, respectively. The combinations of endophytic fungal extract with antibiotics had a significant effect in decreasing the MIC values. These results strongly suggest that the combination of endophytic fungal extract with vancomycin and penicillin had remarkable synergistic action against S. aureus strain 6. However, the combination of endophytic fungal extract with methicillin alone did not work

synergistically against S. aureus strain 6. The synergistic effect of fungal extracts with antibiotic against the drug-resistant bacteria may be useful for the treatment of infectious diseases. Endophytic fungus C. gloeosporioides isolated from the

medicinal plant V. negundo L. is a potential resource for the production selleck kinase inhibitor of metabolites against multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains. Our results showed that the antimicrobial metabolite of endophytic fungus in combination with antibiotics was able to decrease substantially the MIC of antibiotics against a diverse group of bacteria containing genetic elements responsible for drug resistance. Authors are grateful to University Grant Commission (New Delhi) for providing financial support [F. No. 35-50/2008 (SR)]. “
“Phagocytes, such as granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, contain a membrane-associated NADPH oxidase that produces superoxide leading to other reactive oxygen species with microbicidal, tumoricidal

and inflammatory selleck chemicals llc activities. Primary defects in oxidase activity in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) lead to severe, life-threatening infections that demonstrate the importance of the oxygen-dependent microbicidal system in host defence. Other immunological disturbances may secondarily affect the NADPH oxidase system, impair the microbicidal activity of phagocytes and predispose the host to recurrent infections. This article Glutathione peroxidase reviews the primary defects of the human NADPH oxidase leading to classical CGD, and more recently discovered immunological defects secondarily affecting phagocyte respiratory burst function and resulting in primary immunodeficiencies with varied phenotypes, including susceptibilities to pyogenic or mycobacterial infections. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase, an enzyme system responsible for superoxide generation in professional phagocytes of the innate immune system, comprises a small transmembrane electron transport system. Activation of this enzyme complex results in the oxidation of NADPH on the cytoplasmic surface and the generation of superoxide on the outer surface of the membrane, which becomes the inner surface of the phagosome. The phagocyte oxidase is the first identified and best studied member of the NOX family of NADPH oxidases [1].

Additional work showed that the Mtb DosR-regulon-encoded antigen

Additional work showed that the Mtb DosR-regulon-encoded antigen Rv2628 was strongly recognized by individuals with remote Mtb infection 13, 14. Thus far, the precise mechanisms and T-cell subsets responsible for the responses against Mtb DosR-regulon-encoded antigens have not been studied in detail; and virtually all studies have relied on measuring IFN-γ production by polyclonal

cells. Here, we report peptide reactivity and memory phenotypes of Mtb Selleck MG-132 DosR-regulon-encoded antigen-specific T cells in long-term LTBI, and moreover, document a large series of specific peptide epitopes recognized by specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Three Mtb DosR antigens, Rv1733c, Rv2029c and Rv2031c (HspX, α-crystallin) were tested in this study. Strong Mtb DosR antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ polyfunctional T-cell responses were detected selleck chemical in ltLTBIs. The highest responses were observed among single cytokine-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets (either TNF-α+, IL-2+ or IFN-γ+, depending on the stimulus) followed by double producing CD4+ and particularly CD8+ T cells. Of interest, the most frequent

multiple cytokine-producing T cells were IFN-γ+TNF-α+ CD8+ T cells. These cells were further characterized as effector memory (CCR7− and CD45RA−) or effector (CCR7− and CD45RA+) T cells, which have the ability to perform immediate effector functions. This is compatible with an important role for CD8+ T cells in Mtb infection 37, 38. Mtb antigen-specific polyfunctional T cells have been studied intensely the last few years, both in vaccination and in observational studies in Mtb-infected individuals 18–29, 39. There is currently

no consensus whether polyfunctional T cells represent a marker of protective immunity or of disease activity. The vaccine MVA85A (recombinant replication-deficient find more vaccinia Ankara, expressing Ag85A) induced polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 as well as IFN-γ and TNF-α in mice, which correlated with TB protection 19. This vaccine also induced increased CD4+ T cells expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in humans when given as a booster to previous BCG vaccination 20, 21. Similar results were reported following human vaccination with the BCG booster AERAS-402 (recombinant replication-deficient Adenovirus (Ad35) virus, expressing a polyprotein of Ag85A, Ag85B and TB10.4) 22. Finally, mice vaccinated with hybrid subunit vaccines H1 (Ag85-ESAT6) and H56 (H1+Rv2660) also had high numbers of triple cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells 23, 24. However, observational studies in humans have associated polyfunctional CD4+ T cells with TB disease 25, 26.

Interestingly, GWAS have highlighted several genes associated wit

Interestingly, GWAS have highlighted several genes associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia, many of which have a VDR-binding site within or close to them. The genes that are potentially regulated by vitamin D subserve a diverse range of biological functions including membrane transport, maintenance of nucleosome structure, and signal transduction to name a few (see Table 1). Some of these vitamin D mediated genes have an intimate relationship with brain

morphology and function as evidenced by their demonstrated role Palbociclib in neuronal migration and gyration, dendritic spine morphology, and neuronal connectivity (see Table 1) [105-108]. The full scope of the functional impact of vitamin D on the expression of these schizophrenia-associated genes in the brain warrants further study. Autism is part of a spectrum of developmental disorders characterized by deficits in social cognition, language,

communication, and stereotypical patterns of behaviour [109]. Neuropathological features lack clear definition; however, the disorder shows changes consistent with pre- and post-natal developmental Kinase Inhibitor Library concentration abnormalities that involve multiple brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, subcortical white matter, amygdala, brainstem, and cerebellum [110]. It has been proposed that autism demonstrates developmentally specific neural changes, with early brain overgrowth at the beginning of life (thought to be secondary to excessive neurone number), slowing or arrest of growth during early childhood, and neurodegeneration in adult life, at least in a subset of patients [111]. As vitamin D has been shown to inhibit excessive cellular proliferation in early rat brain development [27, 62], it has been argued that gestational hypovitaminosis Sodium butyrate D contributes to excessive neuronal proliferation

in the developing brain and, therefore, could serve as a useful model for autism [112]. Epidemiological evidence for a contribution of vitamin D to the pathogenesis of autism exists but is less striking than for schizophrenia. This, in part, relates to issues of ascertainment, sensitivity/specificity of diagnosis, and differences in study methodology. Seasonality of birth has been reported to be associated with autism in the early spring in Scandinavia, Japan, United Kingdom, and the USA [113-115]. Some studies report an increased peak of births during summer months [116], and others show this effect restricted to men [114] or not existent at all [117]. A latitude effect has been illustrated on both the magnitude of the month of birth effect and in overall disease prevalence [118]; however, the effect has only been discernible in a cohort prior to the surge in autism prevalence in the 1990s. Migration appears to affect prevalence rates of autism.

Malassezia furfur, M  globosa, M  sympodialis and M  slooffiae ar

Malassezia furfur, M. globosa, M. sympodialis and M. slooffiae are the main causative agents associated with the development of SD. It is observed in 3–5% of the general population and is more frequent in men than in women.11 The incidence of SD, however, is much higher in immunocompromised individuals, especially in those with AIDS, ranging from 30% to 80% in different series.20,40–43 In a retrospective and a prospective study conducted simultaneously in the same department in 147 patients with HIV, an incidence for SD of 4.7% and 16.7%

respectively was reported.44 A similar high prevalence of SD has been observed in patients under treatment for carcinomas of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts.45 Seborrhoeic dermatitis represents Copanlisib solubility dmso a chronic, frequently relapsing skin disorder characterised by greasy scaly reddish patches with predilection of sebum-rich areas.32 Lesions of SD occur primarily on the eyebrows, nasolabial folds, cheeks and interscapular region. In immunocompetent selleck chemicals llc individuals, SD generally begins after puberty and becomes chronic with frequent flares, often relapsing or exacerbated in stress. In AIDS patients, the

condition may be much more severe and refractory to topic therapy than in non-immunocompromised patients (Fig. 2).46,47 The increased incidence of SD in immunosuppressed hosts, such as HIV infected patients, suggests that altered immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Both cellular immunity and humoral immunity have been investigated with conflicting results. Recent reports suggest that in HIV-infected patients, the onset of seborrhoeic dermatitis is often an early sign

of CD4 T-lymphocyte cell suppression.48–50 Topical treatment with imidazoles and low dose corticosteroids is usually effective in the treatment of SD. Oral treatment with fluconazole or itraconazole may be indicated in immunocompromised patients and are appropriate in those not responding to topical treatments.32 Information about Malassezia fungaemia and invasive disease is limited. A overwhelming majority of invasive infections reported in the literature have been associated with M. furfur and M. pachydermatis. Malassezia furfur, an obligatory lipophilic yeast and a common saprophyte in humans, has been described predominantly in conjunction with nosocomial outbreaks clonidine in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and sporadically in severely immunocompromised patients. Malassezia pachydermatis, in contrast, a zoophilic yeast associated with otitis externa and seborrhoic dermatitis in dogs, is only occasionally isolated from human skin, but has been implicated in nosocomial infections in hospitalised severely ill neonates.21,22 The first case of Malassezia spp. as a pathogen in bloodstream infection and sepsis was reported in 1981 by Redline et al.; these authors reported a case of Malassezia pulmonary vasculitis in an infant receiving total parenteral nutrition via an indwelling central venous catheter.

First, the majority of NKT cells express an invariant (i) TCRα

First, the majority of NKT cells express an invariant (i) TCRα

chain, which is encoded by a Vα14-Jα18 rearrangement in mice and a Vα24-Jα18 rearrangement in humans (1–4). These cells are referred to as Vα14iNKT cells and Vα24iNKT cells, respectively; Everolimus cost collectively they are referred to as iNKT cells (4). Second, in contrast to conventional T cells, which recognize peptide antigens presented by MHC class I or class II, iNKT cells recognize glycolipids presented by the CD1d molecule. Third, iNKT cells rapidly (within 1–2 hr) produce large quantities of cytokines (including IFNγ and IL-4) following glycolipid antigen recognition by their invariant TCRs. Consequently, iNKT cells stimulate many types of cells including APCs, NK cells, conventional T cells and B cells. Because of these unique features, iNKT cells are able to participate in various immune responses including tumor immunity,

microbial immunity, and initiation and/or regulation of autoimmune diseases and asthma. CD1 is an MHC class I-like antigen presenting Wnt drug molecule (5–8). Humans express five CD1 proteins (CD1a-e), but mice and rats have CD1d only (6–8). Similar to MHC class I, CD1 molecules have three extracellular domains (α1, α2 and α3), which bind to β2 microglobulin. CD1 molecules have deep, narrow and hydrophobic antigen-binding grooves that are suitable for lipid antigen presentation (5–8). CD1a, CD1b and CD1c proteins present lipid antigens from mycobacteria or endogenous lipids to CD1 restricted T cells, and CD1e functions in antigen processing (6–8). The

CD1d protein is necessary for thymic development of iNKT cells and glycolipid antigen presentation to these cells (1–4). Many studies have shown that iNKT cells participate in the response to various microbial pathogens (2, 4, 9, 10). iNKT cell deficient mice are susceptible selleck compound to certain microbial pathogens including bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses (2, 4, 9, 10). However, in some cases, iNKT cells do not play a role in the clearance of microbes, and they may have a detrimental impact on the host (2, 4, 9, 10). In this article, we review recent findings on the role of iNKT cells in the response to microbial pathogens and the mechanisms by which iNKT cells contribute to antimicrobial responses. We also describe how iNKT cell TCR contributes to the response to certain microbial pathogens by recognizing microbial glycolipid antigens. Furthermore, we summarize data indicating that iNKT cell glycolipid antigens may be useful as stimulatory agents that augment immune responses to certain microbial pathogens. Natural killer T cells expressing an invariant T cell antigen receptor are considered innate type lymphocytes because of their rapid cytokine production and NK receptor expression. iNKT cells participate in the response to certain microbial pathogens in the early phase of infection. For example, a role for NKT cells was shown in mice infected with S.

The unique regulation and patterning of B7 family molecules

The unique regulation and patterning of B7 family molecules

in the placenta, together Doxorubicin purchase with emerging empirical data, suggests that these proteins may play an important role in shaping the milieu of the local maternal–fetal environment. In addition, the nature of the costimulatory and co-inhibitory signals B7 family members provide will also influence the outcome of the interaction of maternal lymphocytes with fetal antigen in lymphoid tissues. From the experimental data in humans, we can infer that B7 family proteins could function in at least three distinct capacities (Fig. 4). First, the B7 expressing cells in pregnancy that could function as APCs, i.e., those that express both B7 molecules and MHC, may directly influence T-cell activation and effector functions by delivering a positive or negative costimulatory signal in conjunction with TCR stimulation. Second, trophoblast cells that repress MHC might affect lymphocytes through B7/CD28 family molecules

in trans. Finally, B7 molecules on either decidual APCs or trophoblast cells may backsignal toward the B7-expressing cell and influence the local immune environment through induced expression of immunosuppressive selleck compound library factors independently of their effects on T cells. Thus, in determining the functions of these key regulators of the immune system, there is a need to think ‘outside the box’ when considering B7 family molecules during pregnancy. The authors thank Sarika Kshirsagar and Joseph

Juscius for their technical contributions and Stanton Fernald (University of Kansas Interdisciplinary Center for Male Contraceptive Research & Drug Development Imaging Core) for assistance with images. A.L.P. is supported by NIH training grant T32HD007455. This work is supported by NIH grants R01 HD045611, P01 HD049480, and P20 RR16475. “
“Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in the innate immune response, recognizing a variety of molecular structures characteristic of pathogens. Although TLR4, together with its co-receptor MD-2, recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and therefore Gram-negative bacterial infections, it also plays a key role Sclareol in many other pathophysiological processes, including sterile inflammation and viral infection. Specifically, numerous endogenous agonists of TLR4 of notably diverse nature, ranging from proteins to metal ions, have been reported. Direct activation of a single receptor by such a range of molecular signals is very difficult to explain from a structural and mechanistic point of view. It is likely that only a subset of these directly activate the TLR4-MD2 complex. We propose three postulates aimed at distinguishing the direct agonists of TLR4 from indirect activators.

Effective antimuscarinic treatment of OAB might act mainly on the

Effective antimuscarinic treatment of OAB might act mainly on the muscarinic receptors in sensory pathways and alter urinary NGF production, which in turn reduces

the urgency sensation during bladder filling. If urinary NGF can be demonstrated to reduce in OAB patients with symptomatic improvement after antimuscarinic treatment, urinary NGF level could therefore buy GS-1101 be used as an objective tool to assess the therapeutic outcome of antimuscarinic treatment. Urinary NGF levels were measured in 38 normal controls and 70 patients with OAB. Patients were treated with tolterodine 4 mg once daily (QD). Urinary NGF/Cr levels and urgency severity scale (USS) were compared at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months after antimuscarinics and 1 month after discontinuing treatment.42 This study demonstrated that urinary NGF levels decreased in association with the reduction of urgency severity and increased when OAB symptoms recurred. However, after antimuscarinic treatment for 3 months,

the mean USS had not decreased to zero and urinary NGF levels also remained significantly higher than those of controls. Elevated urinary NGF level might imply the existence of a residual inflammation in the bladder or central nervous system. In a recent study of urinary NGF levels in patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA), NGF/Cr levels were found significantly higher in CVA patients than in normal subjects.43 Urinary NGF/Cr levels correlated well with the severity

of neurological impairment. Patients with mild/moderate impairment and severe impairment GSK-3 inhibition had significantly greater urinary NGF levels than that of none/minimal impairment, suggesting that urinary NGF might be a result of neurologic lesion rather than a cause of bladder dysfunction in CVA. However, previous studies in patients with OAB and DO found that about 30% of patients with OAB symptoms do not have an elevated urinary NGF level.37 It is difficult to explain why some OAB patients do not have elevated urinary NGF levels. Stress-related events may result in increased plasma NGF levels and involvement of neuroendocrine functions.44 Patients with OAB may have until symptoms which wax and wane without definite treatment. It is possible that the sources of NGF production in OAB might be either local (bladder) or systemic (central nervous system). Thus urinary NGF levels can fluctuate due to the effects of different general conditions and stress-related environments. Several urological diseases, including bacterial cystitis, lower ureteral stone, and urothelial cell carcinoma, may develop storage symptoms mimicking OAB or interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). It is essential to understand whether these disorders can also produce a high amount of urinary NGF and whether increased urinary NGF production isrelatedto the associated storage symptoms in these diseases45.

Any obtained difference between stimulated and basal GFR was cons

Any obtained difference between stimulated and basal GFR was considered as RR and expressed as percentage. Results  The mean renal reserve was 23.4% in the healthy control group, 19.08% in CKD stage 1, 15.4% in CKD stage 2, 8.9% in CKD stage 3 and 6.7% in CKD stage 4, respectively. Conclusion:  Renal reserve falls relentlessly with progression of Y-27632 mw CKD from 23.4% in normal

to 6.7% in stage 4 CKD. However, RR may also get completely exhausted even with a normal or with a minimal decline basal GFR. Kidneys may retain some RR even up to the GFR level of 15 mL/min. “
“Aim:  Elevated serum uric level has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The relationship between serum uric acid level, and CKD in a Southeast Asian population was examined. Methods: 

In a cross-sectional study, authors surveyed 5618 subjects, but 5546 participants were included. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values were calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. CKD was defined as a GFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to determine the association ALK inhibitor between serum uric acid level and CKD. Results:  The prevalence of CKD in serum uric acid quartiles: first quartile, 5.3 mg/dL or less; second quartile, 5.4–6.4 mg/dL; third quartile, 6.5–7.6 mg/dL; and fourth quartile, 7.7 mg/dL or more were 1.8%, 3.6%, 5.5% and 11.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). The mean values of estimated GFR in participants with CKD and without CKD were 53.44 ± 7.72 and 81.26 ± 12.48 mL/min per 1.73 m2 respectively. In the entire participants, there were 6.76% with hypertension and 2.64% with diabetes as a comorbid disease. Compared with serum uric acid first quartile, the multivariate-adjusted

odds for CKD of the fourth, third and Bacterial neuraminidase second quartile were 10.94 (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.62–16.08), 4.17 (95% CI, 2.51–6.92) and 2.38 (95% CI, 1.43–3.95), respectively. Conclusion:  High serum uric acid level was independently associated with increased prevalence of CKD in the Southeast Asian population. Detection and treatment of hyperuricaemia should be attended as a strategy to prevent CKD. “
“Date written: February 2009 Final submission: August 2009 a.  At 5 years (median 34 months), correction of renal artery stenosis (RAS), by balloon angioplasty with or without stenting (no distal protection) has no beneficial effect on blood pressure (BP) compared with medical therapy and is associated with an adverse event rate of 10–25%.

Several studies, including gene-fate mapping studies [54, 55], ha

Several studies, including gene-fate mapping studies [54, 55], have now provided convincing evidence that most Th cells have a great degree of flexibility in their differentiation options. In the human system, it has been shown that Treg cells could acquire the CHIR-99021 in vivo capacity to produce IL-17, while maintaining the capacity to suppress T-cell effector functions [56, 57], while Th17 cells from the synovial fluid of oligoarticular-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritic patients shift in vitro from a Th17 to a Th17/Th1 or Th1 phenotype [58]. The time-dependent regulation of IL-17 and IL-10 production in Th17 cells that was discussed

above [37] may be considered as yet another example of Th-cell flexibility that underlines the robust and adaptive behavior of effector T cells in the immune response. The extent to which the immune system uses this flexibility and the consequences for

protection or immunopathology remain poorly understood and represent a challenge and an opportunity for future studies. The work in the authors’ laboratories is supported by grants from the Swiss National Science Foundation (N. 131092 to F.S. AZD8055 supplier and 126027 to A.L.) and the European Research Council. The Institute for Research in Biomedicine is supported by the Helmut Horten Foundation The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. “
“Multiple sclerosis (MS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) represent chronic, autoimmune demyelinating disorders of the central and peripheral Cytidine deaminase nervous system. Although both disorders share some fundamental pathogenic elements, treatments do not provide uniform effects across both disorders. We aim at providing an overview of current and future disease-modifying strategies in these disorders to demonstrate communalities and distinctions. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) have demonstrated short- and long-term beneficial effects in CIDP but are not effective in MS. Dimethyl fumarate (BG-12), teriflunomide and laquinimod are orally administered immunomodulatory

drugs that are already approved or likely to be approved in the near future for the basic therapy of patients with relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) due to positive results in Phase III clinical trials. However, clinical trials with these drugs in CIDP have not (yet) been initiated. Natalizumab and fingolimod are approved for the treatment of RRMS, and trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy in CIDP are now planned. Alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab and daclizumab respresent monoclonal antibodies in advanced stages of clinical development for their use in RRMS patients. Attempts to study the safety and efficacy of alemtuzumab and B cell-depleting anti-CD20 antibodies, i.e. rituximab, ocrelizumab or ofatumumab, in CIDP patients are currently under way. We provide an overview of the mechanism of action and clinical data available on disease-modifying immunotherapy options for MS and CIDP.