8%, 27 0%, and 11 6%, respectively (COP-NLR0 vs COP-NLR1, P < 00

8%, 27.0%, and 11.6%, respectively (COP-NLR0 vs COP-NLR1, P < .001; COP-NLR1 vs COP-NLR2, P = .005; Figure 2). By univariate analysis, we found that seven clinicopathologic variables had significant associations with CSS (Table 3). Then, all of the seven significant variables above were included in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. In that model, we demonstrated that both the GPS (P = .003) and the COP-NLR (P = .003) were significant independent predictors of CSS ( Table 4). In addition, our study showed a similar hazard ratio (HR) between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367). There were significant positive correlations

between Alectinib in vivo COP-NLR and GPS (r = 0.494, P < .001). Our results showed significant negative correlations between CRP

and albumin (r = − 0.300, P < .001; Figure 3A), NLR and albumin (r = − 0.148, BGB324 price P = .004; Figure 3E), and platelet count and albumin (r = − 0.210, P < .001; Figure 3F). There were significant positive correlations between CRP and NLR (r = 0.157, P = .002; Figure 3B) and CRP and platelet count (r = 0.138, P = .007; Figure 3C). However, there were no correlation between NLR and platelet count (r = 0.079, P = .125; Figure 3D). AIC and BIC values were calculated by using logistic regression according to the survival status of patients when the follow-up was over. The AIC and BIC values were similar between COP-NLR and GPS, indicating that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS (Table 5). There is strong linkage between inflammation and cancer [5] and [6]. In our study, we analyze the potential prognostic

values of COP-NLR and GPS in ESCC patients without adjuvant chemoradiotherapy mainly because chemotherapy or radiation will have an important impact on the systemic inflammation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show COP-NLR as an independent prognostic factor in patients with ESCC. Our study showed that both GPS (P = .003) and COP-NLR (P = .003) were significantly associated with CSS in multivariate analysis. We conclude that COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC, and it predicts survival similar to GPS. There are now a number of well-established systemic inflammation-based prognostic PRKD3 indexes for patients with EC. In particular, the GPS has been well validated. Several previous studies have shown that GPS is associated with survival in various cancers, including ECs [8], [9] and [10]. Our study showed that GPS was associated with tumor size, depth of invasion, and nodal metastasis. This observation is in line with data from Vashist et al. [8] but is contrary to the result of Kobayashi et al. [9], who suggested that GPS has no significant correlation with the above clinicopathologic factors. Moreover, our study demonstrated that COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC, and the result was consistent with previous studies [8] and [9].

, 2008 and Hart, 1988) Microbial invasion is sensed by cells of

, 2008 and Hart, 1988). Microbial invasion is sensed by cells of the innate immune system through selleck kinase inhibitor activation of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), following the recognition of molecular structures specific for pathogens, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (Kawai and Akira, 2011). The first identified and best characterized PRRs belong to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs); however, other PRRs such as the nuclear-binding domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs)

represent a further group of PRRs playing important roles in PAMP recognition and immunity (Franchi et al., 2009 and Kawai and Akira, 2011). Unlike NLRs which are intracellular PRRs, TLRs are associated with the cell membrane. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and acts as a predominant TLR4 agonist (Poltorak et al., 1998 and Kawai and Akira, 2011). After binding to TLR4 it leads to NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and induces a strong cytokine response (Poltorak et al., 1998 and Kawai

and Akira, 2011). Thus, LPS is one of the most widely studied PAMPs triggering acute sickness behavior, as well as delayed depression-like behavior in rodents (Frenois et al., 2007 and Yirmiya, 1996) and elicits similar effects to that of the injection of specific cytokines such as

IL-1β (Anisman et al., 2008) and TNF-α (Bluthe et either al., 1991). The behavioral effects of peripheral see more immune activation are mediated via an afferent neural and an endocrine pathway. As part of the endocrine pathway, cytokines and circulating PAMPs reach the brain at the level of the choroid plexus and the circumventricular organs and induce the expression of cytokines within the brain (Dantzer et al., 2000). The peripheral and central effects of immune activation can be assessed by means of several parameters. First, immune activation induces c-Fos-like immunoreactivity, an indicator of neuronal activation, within the brain and can provide insights into the neural networks that subserve sickness symptoms (Gaykema and Goehler, 2011 and Sagar et al., 1995). Second, immune activation leads to an increase of circulating corticosterone levels indicating a stimulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis (Lenczowski et al., 1997). Third, the tryptophan catabolite kynurenine, which is generated by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) upon activation by cytokines, has emerged as a key mediator for the induction of anhedonic and anxiety-like behavior (Haroon et al., 2012, O’connor et al., 2009 and Salazar et al., 2012).

Within the

Within the buy Navitoclax reclaimed land, irrigation water is pumped from a waterworks located near station R1, however irrigation of the vegetable field in the newly reclaimed land is limited as the annual precipitation of Isahaya district is 10–20% higher than the rest of Japan. On the other hand, wetland rice cultivation carried out on previously reclaimed land is heavily reliant on irrigation. The water for rice cultivation originates from small irrigation ponds, from which it is pumped up to each rice field. Beginning in September 2009, we expanded our environmental monitoring of MC content to include the irrigation

ponds, as well as the water pumped out of these ponds for irrigation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure total MC levels

(dissolved plus cell-bound) in surface water and pore water of the sediment, as described previously (Umehara et al., 2012). Several grams of target organ or whole specimen were frozen at −30 °C and freeze dried at below −40 °C. Lyophilized samples were homogenized and extracted three times with 10–20 mL BuOH:MeOH:H2O (1:4:15) solution for ∼24 h at 4 °C with stirring. Extracts were centrifuged for 20 min at 1600g, filtrates were collected, and 5 mL filtrate was centrifuged again for 1 h at 72,000g at −4 °C. Then the supernatant was filtered with a 0.45 μm mesh nitrocellulose filter. Then 3 mL supernatant was concentrated on octadecil-silane cartridges (C18), washed with 20 mL distilled water followed click here by 20 mL 20%

methanol, and eluted with 20 mL 100% methanol. This final fraction was again concentrated on a silica cartridge, washed with 20 mL 100% methanol, and eluted with 20 mL H2O:TFA:methanol (10:0.1:89.9 v/v) solution ( Harada et al., 1988 and Tsuji et al., 1994). Next, the methanol in the elute was vaporized using a rotary evaporator, and the remaining solution was lyophilized and dissolved by distillation of 1 mL. Finally, the MC content of the solution was measured by ELISA. Total MC levels were determined using a commercial Microcystin ELISA Kit (WAKO Pure Chemicals Industry, Ltd., Japan). After Glycogen branching enzyme 2011, these analyses were supplemented with new analyses using a different but similar ELISA kit (Microcystin Plate Kit, Beacon Analytical Systems Inc., USA). The monoclonal antibody used in the ELISA recognizes the Adda residue of MCs, which may be related to toxicity. The analytical curves of both kits are drawn based on the standard of MC-LR, but the susceptibilities to different MC homologs varies. Therefore, we measured each sample using both ELISA kits to determine the correlation between kits (W = 1.03B, r2 = 0.914, n = 22; W: value by Wako’s kit, B: value by Beacon’s kit). This difference was considered to be within the margin of error of detection for the scanner used. Blooms of M.

Primary production was dominated by the picophytoplankton, but it

Primary production was dominated by the picophytoplankton, but its biomass specific primary productivity was lower than in other atoll lagoons. They showed significant spatial (sites) and temporal (seasonal and day to day) effects on the measured processes for the two size fractions of phytoplankton. The variables size fraction of the phytoplankton, water temperature, season, the interaction

term station ∗ fraction and site, explained significantly the variance of the data set using redundancy Erlotinib chemical structure analysis. However, no significant trends over depth were observed in the range of 0–20 m. A consistent clear spatial pattern was found with the south and north sites different from the two central stations for most of the measured variables. This pattern was explained by the different barotropic cells highlighted by Dumas et al. (2012) in their hydrodynamic study. Lefebvre et al. (2012) hypothesized the existence of a fast regeneration mechanism of nitrogen through pulses, a process that fuels the larger phytoplankton’s production better than the picophytoplankton one. Sediment interface

and cultured oysters were good candidates to explain, at least partly, the fast regeneration processes this website of nitrogen organic material. A precise spatial evaluation of the cultured pearl oyster stock remain necessary for future studies, as well as measurements of nutrient ambient conditions, preferentially with flux

methods using carbon and nitrogen tracers rather than measurement of nutrient stocks that are rapidly assimilated and transformed by autotrophs (Furnas et al., 2005). Charpy et al. (2012) suggests that relatively low particulate organic carbon content compared to other lagoons localized at the same latitude could reflect the impact of pearl oyster aquaculture. However, this impact does not appear on phytoplankton biomass. Indeed, as shown by Fournier et al. (2012b), oysters do not feed directly on phytoplankton, but rather graze heterotrophic plankton. Fournier et al. (2012b) refined the knowledge on P. margaritifera diet by demonstrating with the flow through chamber method that the main factor influencing clearance rates of pearl oysters was the biovolume of planktonic 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase particles. Thus, the diet of P. margaritifera was mainly driven by fluctuation of the relative biomass of the nano- micro- planktonic communities. Both heterotrophic nano- and micro-plankton represented an important part of the diet of P. margaritifera depending on their relative biomass in the water column. The picoplankton communities displayed the lowest clearance rates but represented however a detectable contribution to the diet. Whether or not this selective grazing may induce a change in plankton assemblage in cultivated lagoons compared to uncultivated ones remain unknown.

° e o 7 ° dia, estando recomendada a abordagem cirúrgica se não s

° e o 7.° dia, estando recomendada a abordagem cirúrgica se não se obtiver eficácia terapêutica até essa altura8. No caso clínico descrito optou-se por iniciar infliximab, muito devido à experiência do centro no uso deste fármaco e ao facto selleck chemicals llc de ser uma opção válida não só para a remissão, mas também para a manutenção da doença, obtendo-se excelente resposta a curto/médio prazo. Apesar do desenvolvimento das terapêuticas médicas e otimização dos protocolos de abordagem destes doentes, a colite ulcerosa grave com megacolón tóxico constitui ainda um desafio clínico, pois é potencialmente ameaçadora da vida. Os autores declaram não

haver conflito de interesses. “
“Apresentamos o caso clínico de um adolescente de 17 anos de idade, do sexo masculino, raça caucasiana, com espinha bífida e incontinência fecal com múltiplas pequenas perdas diárias que o impossibilitavam de frequentar as atividades escolares. Efetuou estudo manométrico anorretal, que mostrou pressão anal de repouso normal, boa contração voluntária, reflexos à distensão retal normais e hipossensibilidade retal (volume máximo tolerável de 350 mL). O clister opaco realizado não revelou quaisquer alterações ao nível

da morfologia retal ou do cólon. Do ponto de vista urinário, mantinha-se continente pelo recurso a terapêutica adequada. Apesar de várias tentativas de terapêutica com laxantes e modificação dos hábitos alimentares, tinha dejeções diárias mas com soilling permanente. Introduzido esquema rigoroso de realização vespertina de enemas retrógrados, que, Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase por não ter sido cumprido regularmente pelo Protease Inhibitor Library research buy doente, não possibilitou melhoria do quadro clínico. Assim foi proposta a colocação de cecostomia endoscópica percutânea (CEP) para a realização de enemas anterógrados, que o doente e familiares aceitaram. O procedimento (Figura 1, Figura 2, Figura 3 and Figura 4) realizado pela técnica descrita por Rivera et al. consistiu na realização de colonoscopia com identificação

do cego e transiluminação da parede abdominal no local correspondente ao mesmo. Por pressão digital sob a parede na fossa ilíaca direita, identificou-se o melhor local para a cecostomia. Sob visualização direta do colonoscópio, introduziu-se o fio guia após punção direta na região transiluminada selecionada com agulha mandrilada. Procedeu-se à exteriorização anal do guia com o auxílio do colonoscópio e ansa acoplada. Introduziu-se a sonda de cecostomia pelo ânus por tração abdominal do fio guia, com exteriorização da mesma na fossa ilíaca direita. O preenchimento do balão e ajustamento do disco fixador externo permitiu a criação de zona de aderência entre cego e parede abdominal, mantendo a sonda em local apropriado. Completado o procedimento, injetou-se produto contrastado pela sonda de cecostomia e confirmou-se por fluoroscopia o seu correto posicionamento e ausência de extravasamento de contraste.


in the present sample the average rating for


in the present sample the average rating for BMI was .96 which contrasts with previous research were ratings ranged between .1 and .7. The presence Epigenetics inhibitor of BMI among the preferred terms has important implications for training. Although BMI does not imply any negative attributes nor assigns a value laden label, concerns might be raised as to the extent to which BMI is understood by clients. Even the full term of Body Mass Index does not immediately suggest that it is a measure of weight, which takes into account a person’s height. It also requires knowledge of weight and height in metric units and a complex calculation – kg/m2. Furthermore, BMI does not measure body fat directly and although it is the recommend measure of overweight in adults to be used by HCPs [19], some obese people have questioned its validity [25]. Undoubtedly the development of effective training programs will require further research that fully explores the preferred terms of obese people in the UK and the impact of HCPs terminology in consultations. However, at the very least, all trainee HCPs should be made aware of the potential consequences of their language and if they use BMI, they ensure that both they and their clients understand its meaning and its implications for health.

Although avoiding negative attribution may be positive when initiating conversations about VE-822 solubility dmso bodyweight with clients, some level of perceived risk may be necessary for behavior change

[33]. Patient reports of being told by a physician that they were overweight have been associated with desires Cell Penetrating Peptide to lose weight and recent attempts to lose weight [55]. NICE, therefore, recommends that adults should be given information about their obesity and its associated health risks [19] but it is essential that this information is communicated in a way that the client understands and feels supported. In line with practicing HCPs [33] and public health experts [32], trainee HCPs endorse the use of euphemisms for obesity. Once again, the development of effective training programs will require further research that fully explores the impact of euphemisms in consultations but, at the very least, all trainee HCPs should understand the advantages and disadvantages of euphemisms. Furthermore they should be encouraged to explore whether clients fully understand their meanings and implications, and address any negative emotional effects. Visits to HCPs may be initiated for reasons other than bodyweight but can represent potential opportunities for discussion [19], particularly for clients who do not often access healthcare services [56]. However, obese clients rightfully expect their HCPs to communicate respectfully and suggest that the way something is said is just as important as what is said [28].

All fixations that did not belong to a significant cluster were p

All fixations that did not belong to a significant cluster were pooled into

a special cluster, referred to as background state. The background state was crucial for the correct calculation of the transition probabilities to and from significant clusters, i.e., in order to account also for the transitions that are neither within a cluster, nor between two clusters. Further details are described in the next section. The statistical Selleck GSK 3 inhibitor properties of the scanpaths a monkey chose to explore an image were analyzed by a Markov chain (MC) analysis (Markov, 1913). A MC is a sequence of random variables that propagate through a chain of states in accordance with given transition probabilities. These were estimated from the data as normalized frequencies of transitions from a specific state sj to any particular other state sk or to itself. The formerly identified clusters (compare previous section)

Akt inhibitor of fixation points (including the background cluster) defined the states sj. The transition probabilities from any one state to any other state (including the same state) were represented in matrix form. The state of the system at step t with t = 1,…,T − 1, with T being the total number of fixations on an image was derived via P(St + 1 = s|St = si, …, S1 = s1) = P(St + 1 = s|St = si) for all n states si ∈ s1, …,sn, thereby assuming that the scanpaths of the monkeys satisfy the Markov property, i.e., the present state is independent of the past states. For better intuition, we visualized the results of the MC analysis by a transition graph (see example shown for monkey D in Fig. 5), in which the vertices are the states, i.e., the identified fixation

clusters. The graph is composed of oriented edges connecting vertices, weighted with the transition probabilities between the respective states. In addition, each vertex also contains an edge to itself weighted by the probability of staying within the same state in the subsequent step. In the following two cases no edges were drawn between the two vertices: first, whenever the transition ADAMTS5 probability Pjk equals zero; second, for transitions originating in the background state. For better visualization we represented the transition probabilities by the thickness of the edges ( Fig. 5C) (thereby deviating in the graphical display from conventional transition graphs). In order to interpret the transition probabilities derived by the MC analysis we compared them to the transition probabilities obtained assuming homogeneous chance probabilities of the transitions between any two states s  j and s  k, Pexpected(St+1=sk|St=sj)=Pexpected(St+1=sk)=nkT, with nk being the number of fixations in state sk and T the total number of transition steps. As illustrated in Fig.

Accidental spills of oil and chemicals

can arise during o

Accidental spills of oil and chemicals

can arise during operation. In 2012 totally 122 small incidents were reported with a total oil discharge of 16 m3. Acute spills of chemicals have been stable at 100–150 incidents per year on the click here NCS over the past decade (Norwegian Oil and Gas, 2013). Large chemical spills in 2007, 2009 and 2010 came from leakages from injection wells. No leakage has occurred after that due to technical improvements (Norwegian Oil and Gas, 2013). Until the mid 1990s the discharge of cuttings with oil based drilling mud (OBM cuttings) was the main source of oil hydrocarbons entering the marine environment from the offshore petroleum industry in the NS. The average annual discharge of oil on cuttings to the NCS for the period 1981–1986 was 1940 tons (Reiersen et al., 1989). This source was gradually eliminated by regulation, in 1993 in Norway and in 1996 and 2000 within the OSPAR region (OSPAR Commission, 2000). Concurrently oil discharged with PW on the NCS has increased and amounted to 1535 tons in 2012 (Norwegian Oil and Gas, 2013) i.e. almost at level with the former peak discharges of oil on cuttings. This is primarily due to an increase in overall PW volumes due to well ageing and rising number of producing fields.

One of the main objectives of environmental monitoring is to assess if discharge regulations are sufficiently protective. The history of sediment monitoring on the NCS has demonstrated that detection of unexpected ecological effects alone has led to stricter discharge legislation. The most conspicuous FDA-approved Drug Library solubility dmso example is the identification in the early 1990′s of much larger areas with fauna

effects from OBM cuttings discharges than previously known (Gray et al., 1990), leading to the prohibition of such discharges by OSPAR in 1996 (Gray et al., 1999). Extensive experimental and field studies have later been made to assess the ecological effects of the discharges. This review summarizes the findings Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase of a large, Norwegian research program1 which combines experimental research and in situ monitoring on the NCS to address the likelihood of population and ecosystem effects from operational discharges of PW and drill cuttings. The concern and focus of the program is very much on PW since the potential environmental effects are less clearly understood than for drilling waste. PW is water from the formation produced along with oil or gas. It may sometimes also contain injection water and condensation water. The composition and characteristics of naturally-occurring chemical substances in PW are closely coupled to the geological characteristics of each reservoir. The composition of PW is complex and can comprise several thousand compounds that vary in concentration between wells and over the lifetime of a well.

e , antioxidant activity) (58) Since HDN has

shown antio

e., antioxidant activity) (58). Since HDN has

shown antioxidant buy Rapamycin and free radical scavenging activity (59), the present study primarily ameliorating the effect of HDN on iron accumulation and oxidative damage in the liver of iron overloaded rat is studied. Oral administration of hesperidin significantly inverse the iron induced peroxidative damage in liver which is evidenced from the lowered levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides. This may be due to the antioxidative effect of hesperidin (60). An antioxidant is a molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reaction can produce free radicals, ITF2357 molecular weight which start chain reactions that damage cells. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. As a result are often reducing agents such as thiols, ascorbic acid or polyphenols (61). The enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and Glutathione-S-transferase play a vital role during the process of scavenging reactive oxygen species or preventing their formation (62). Superoxide dismutase, catalase

and glutathione peroxidase constitute the major enzymatic antioxidant defenses which convert active oxygen molecules in to

non-toxic compounds (60). Superoxide CHIR 99021 dismutase is a ubiquitous enzyme with an essential function in protecting aerobic cells against oxidative stress. It is primarily mitochondrial enzyme usually found in the plasma membrane (63). Catalase is a tetrameric heme protein that undergoes alternative divalent oxidation and reduction at its active site in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (64). As a substrate for the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione protects cellular constituents from the damaging effects of peroxides formed in metabolism and other reactive oxygen species reaction (65). Glutathione peroxidase catalyzes the reaction of hydroperoxides with reduced glutathione to form glutathione disulphide and the reduction product of the hydroperoxide (66). The Glutathione-S-transferase is a group of isoenzyme is capable of detoxifying various endogenous and exogenous substances by conjugating reduced glutarhione. In this context, the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and Glutathione-S-transferase were observed in tissues of Fe-treated rats. Hesperidin offers protection against oxidative damage due to the ability of enhanced antioxidant activity (67). The non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione are closely interlinked with each other and play an excellent role in protecting the cell from lipid peroxidation (68).

This investigation of near-shore copepods in the Gulf of Gdańsk i

This investigation of near-shore copepods in the Gulf of Gdańsk indicates that the infestation may relate to different developmental stages. Epibiosis and parasitism, to varying

degrees, were observed on adult organisms (females, males), juveniles (copepodites) and larval (nauplii) stages. All of the infestations detected on Copepoda occurred mainly on the prosome including the cephalosome, but rarely on the urosome. Usually up to 13 of the animal body surface was overgrown with organisms; only in a few cases did they cover more than 12 of the body area. The epizoic protozoans, Peritricha type II, were found for the first time on copepods belonging to Harpacticoida (Figure 1F). These organisms were observed twice in June and July 2006 at the station Smad2 phosphorylation located near the mouth of the Vistula (Sw3 – 54°23.2′N, 18°58.0°E, 20–10 m depth) at respective densities of 64 and 7 indiv. m− 3. They constituted 0.22% of all harpacticoids. Representatives of Cladocera (Bosmina sp.) ( Figure 1B) infected by Ellobiopsis were noted in August 2006 at the Sopot 4 station (So4 – 54°30.7′N, 18°46.0′E, 30–20 m depth) at a density of 14 indiv. m− 3, which constituted 2.9% of the total population. The youngest Cirripedia, nauplii, ( Figure 1C) with the same parasite were found in September

at the Sopot 1 station (So1 – 54°27.0′N, 18°34.8′E, 5–0 m depth) at an abundance of 4 indiv. m− 3 – these organisms represented 0.2% of the population. Eutrophication is a significant problem in the Baltic Sea (Schiewer 2008). The Gulf of Gdańsk is Silmitasertib one of the most seriously polluted areas of the Baltic Sea and is particularly threatened

by environmental degradation. The physicochemical conditions of this basin are determined by both natural and anthropogenic factors. The mixing of waters of the gulf with seawaters occurs on a very limited scale; this results in a consistently high level of pollution. The gradually worsening water pollution in this basin has led to serious biological changes (Sobol & Szumilas 1994). Among the zooplankton, the dominance of Copepoda of the genus Acartia, mainly A. bifilosa and A. tonsa ( Bielecka Nutlin-3 cell line et al., 2000, Żmijewska et al., 2000, Józefczuk et al., 2003 and Mudrak and Żmijewska, 2007), and an increase in the numbers of Protozoa, free-living and colonial epibionts that grow on Copepoda ( Wiktor, 1993 and Wiktor and Krajewska-Sołtys, 1994), have been observed. According to Hirche (1974), the large-scale occurrence of protozoan colonies on Calanoida (Eurytemora affinis and Acartia tonsa) was the result of strong, progressive eutrophication. Wiktor (1993) considered that one reason for epibiosis and parasitism on copepods was the increasing pollution load and the increase in the organic matter content, hence the large-scale proliferation of Protozoa, organisms with a high metabolic rate.