The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (>= 2.2 kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after
cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally selleck chemical find more affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Primary congenital abdominal aortic
aneurysm is an extremely rare entity, with only 15 patients reported in the literature. Options for repair are often limited secondary to branch vessel size and other anatomic limitations. We present a neonate diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm on prenatal ultrasound. A postpartum computed tomography angiogram revealed an extensive type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm extending to the aortic bifurcation and resulting in bilateral renal artery stenosis. The unique features of this patient and challenges in management are discussed. (J Vasc Surg 2012;55:1762-5.)”
“A rich literature suggests that both impulsiveness and drug-induced euphoria are risk factors AZD2014 cost for drug abuse. However, few studies have examined whether sensitivity to the euphoric effects of stimulants is related to attention lapses,
a behavioral measure of inattention sometimes associated with impulsivity.
The aim of the study was to examine ratings of d-amphetamine drug liking among individuals with high, moderate, and low attention lapses.
Ninety-nine healthy volunteers were divided into three equal-sized groups based on their performance on a measure of lapses of attention. The groups, who exhibited low, medium, and high attention lapses (i.e., long reaction times) on a simple reaction time task, were compared on their subjective responses (i.e., ratings of liking and wanting more drug) after acute doses of d-amphetamine (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg).
Subjects who exhibited high lapses liked 20 mg d-amphetamine less than subjects who exhibited low lapses.