induced by seasonal influenza or seasonal influenza vaccination exhibit limited or no cross-reactivity against the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza virus of the H1N1 subtype (pH1N1). Ferrets immunized once or twice with MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine exhibited significantly reduced lung virus titers but no substantial clinical protection against pH1N1-associated disease. However, priming with MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine significantly increased the efficacy of a pandemic MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine against pH1N1 challenge. Elucidating the mechanism involved in this priming principle will contribute to our understanding of vaccine- and infection-induced correlates of protection. Furthermore, a practical consequence of these findings
is that during an emerging pandemic, the implementation of a priming strategy with an selleck inhibitor available adjuvanted seasonal vaccine to precede the eventual pandemic vaccination campaign may be useful and life-saving.”
“Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae, causes severe damage to mandarin fish cultures in China. Little is known about the proteins of ISKNV virions. In this study, a total of 38 ISKNV virion-associated proteins were identified by four different workflows with systematic and comprehensive proteomic approaches. Among the 38 identified proteins, 21 proteins were identified by the gel-based workflows (one-dimensional [1-D] and two-dimensional [2-D] gel PD0332991 molecular weight electrophoresis). Fifteen proteins were identified by 1-D gel electrophoresis, and 16 proteins were identified by 2-D gel electrophoresis, with 10 proteins identified by both methods. Another 17 proteins were identified only by liquid chromatography (LC)-based workflows Selleckchem LDN-193189 (LC-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization [MALDI] and linear trap quadrupole [LTQ]-Orbitrap). Among these 17 LC-identified proteins, 5 proteins
were identified uniquely by the LC-MALDI workflow, whereas another 6 proteins were identified only by the LTQ-Orbitrap workflow. These results underscore the importance of incorporation of multiple approaches in identification of viral proteins. Based on viral genomic sequence, genes encoding these 38 viral proteins were cloned and expressed in vitro. Antibodies were produced against these 38 proteins to confirm the ISKNV structural proteins by Western blotting. Of the newly identified proteins, ORF 056L and ORF 118L were identified and confirmed as two novel viral envelope proteins by Western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). The ISKNV proteome reported here is currently the only characterized megalocytivirus proteome. The systematic and comprehensive identification of ISKNV structural proteins and their localizations in this study will facilitate future studies of the ISKNV assembly process and infection mechanism.