g shoreline – bar I with correlation coefficient R = 0 72 and ba

g. shoreline – bar I with correlation coefficient R = 0.72 and bar I – bar II with R = 0.57), so their onshore/offshore movements are very consistent. The location of the bars of the outer subsystem is much less correlated with the shoreline position (the correlation between the shoreline and bar III positions can even be negative). Recent investigations of medium-scale variations of bars, carried

out on the basis of 15-year long measurements at Hasaki Field Station (Japan) and supported by Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis, show that bar displacement has a cyclic character (Kuriyama et al. 2008). Similar conclusions were drawn by Różyński (2003) for the southern Baltic shore at CRS Lubiatowo. Although the variability of bars and their links to environmental factors have been the objectives of many analyses, INCB018424 the direct interactions between dunes and the shoreline

still seem to be insufficiently identified. Presumably, displacements of the shoreline and the Selleck ABT263 dune toe can be mutually independent if the beach is wide. In the case of a cliff coast or narrow, intensively eroded beaches, variability of shoreline position is often related to a change in position of the dune/cliff toe. At smaller time scales (weeks, months), migration of the shoreline on sandy seashores is not always associated with the simultaneous evolution of dune forms. At a larger time scale (years, decades), which will include a number of extreme hydrodynamic events, the probability of more distinct links between shoreline and dune toe positions increases. Various studies have confirmed the fact that shoreline and dune toe variations depend strongly on the time scale of observations,

see e.g. Komar, 1998, Hobbs et al., 1999, Baquerizo and Losada, 2008 and Kroon et al., 2008. Owing to its continuous contact with water, the shoreline responds to changes in hydrodynamic conditions more quickly and strongly than dunes and thus undergoes more dynamic migration. A dune is characterized by a much greater inertia, so investigations of the relationships between shoreline and Cepharanthine dune movements should also incorporate long-term, possibly inter-decadal time scales that smooth out instantaneous, often purely random movements of the shoreline. Nearshore wave energy and water surface elevation are key dynamic factors governing the intensity of coastal erosive and accumulative processes. Sea level variations cause changes in the instantaneous wave energy impact on the seashore. During high storm surges, large parts of a beach are submerged and wave run-up phenomena can affect dunes directly, which can result in their destruction. In such conditions, the range of simultaneous erosion of beach and dune depends on the intensity and duration of storm conditions. Part of the wave energy is dissipated as a result of bottom friction and wave breaking in the coastal zone, while the remainder is reflected from the shoreface.

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