, 2000; Dunning Hotopp et al, 2006; Kawai et al, 2006; Maiden,

, 2000; Dunning Hotopp et al., 2006; Kawai et al., 2006; Maiden, 2008; Schoen et al., 2008; Aspholm et al., 2010; Marri et al., 2010; Joseph et al., 2011), and as a result, 46 Neisseria genome sequences of human origin are available Venetoclax purchase from public databases. However, none of the genomes from strains that originated from animals have

been studied. A group of bacterial strains previously known as CDC group M-5 are part of the normal canine oral flora, but it has known opportunistic pathogenicity in human peritonitis (Kocyigit et al., 2010), lower respiratory tract infections (Panagea et al., 2002), cervical and vaginal infections (Flores-Paz et al., 2003), wound infections (Capitini et al., 2002), and septicemia (Carlson et al., 1997). In 1993, a name, Neisseria weaveri, has been proposed by two independent studies to harbor CDC group M-5 strains, namely N. weaveri Holmes et al. 1993 and Pifithrin-�� mouse N. weaveri Andersen et al. 1993 (Andersen et al., 1993a, b). The type strain defined by Holmes et al. (1993) was isolated from human dog bite wound in Göteborg, Sweden (1974) and that defined by Andersen et al. (1993a) was isolated from same type of wound in New York, USA (1962). Even though both taxa were published in the same volume of International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (IJSB), N. weaveri Holmes et al. 1993 has page

precedence over N. weaveri Andersen et al. 1993 according to Bacteriological Code Rules 51b (4) and 24b (2) (Lagage et al., 1992). Thus, N. weaveri Andersen et al. 1993 is illegitimate because it is a later homonym of N. weaveri Holmes et al. 1993 (Euzéby, 1998). Although different type strains were deposited as representing N. weaveri, the close relationship of the two taxa has long been accepted because of the similar pathogenic characteristics of the two ‘type’ strains. However, there has been no systematic

investigation about the relatedness of these two ‘type’ strains and thus the illegitimate name has remained as a homonym and not transferred as a synonym of N. weaveri Holmes et al. 1993. Thus, in this study, we attempt to resolve the confusion caused by two N. weaveri species with different ‘type’ strains ADP ribosylation factor using whole genome shotgun sequencing. We also sought to gain insight into the genetic characteristics of N. weaveri by conducting comparative genomics. The ‘type’ strains of N. weaveri Holmes et al. 1993 (LMG 5135T) and N. weaveri Andersen et al. 1993 (ATCC 51223T) were obtained from LMG and ATCC, respectively, and the genomic DNAs were extracted using DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit (Qiagen). The draft genome sequences of strains LMG 5135T and ATCC 51223T were determined by paired-end shotgun sequencing using the Genome Analyzer IIx (Illumina) with > 1000× fold coverage. The sequencing reads were assembled using the CLC genomics wb4 (CLCbio) and CodonCode Aligner (CodonCode Co.).

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