Thirty dpi nodules were able to fix nitrogen as revealed by their

Thirty dpi nodules were able to fix nitrogen as revealed by their pink colour because of the presence of leghemoglobin. A total of 180 nodules (121 from this website plants in Leonard jars and 59 from plants on plates) were

excised from roots, crushed and simultaneously plated on TY and TY-Km to identify nodule-occupying bacteria. Only 2.5% of the nodules analyzed (mean of the two experiments) were found to contain the mutant 2011-3.4 (Fig. 4b). Nonetheless, wild-type bacteria were also found within these nodules and therefore the former percentage represents double occupancy. The remaining nodules (97.5% on average) were exclusively occupied by the wild-type 2011 strain. These findings revealed that loss

of Hfq has a major Milciclib solubility dmso impact on nodulation competitiveness of S. meliloti on alfalfa roots. Major differences in the symbiotic behaviour of the 1021 wild-type strain and the 1021Δhfq mutant were also observed when looking at the final number of nitrogen-fixing nodules (i.e. pink nodules expressing the plant leghemoglobin) induced by each strain when inoculated independently on alfalfa plants. This parameter was determined in plants grown either in test tubes or agar plates. At the end of the experiment (30 dpi) 95% nodules AZD1480 in vitro elicited by the wild-type strain were pink as indicative of active nitrogen-fixation, whatever the plant growth conditions, whereas 55% (test tubes)-64% (agar plates) nodules induced by the 1021Δhfq mutant remained white (Fig. 4c, left graph). Furthermore, the first wild-type pink nodule appeared on average 13 dpi. In contrast, this time was estimated to be 18 dpi in plants inoculated with the 1021Δhfq strain. Finally, growth of alfalfa plants inoculated with S. meliloti 1021 and 1021Δhfq strains were also compared in experiments performed on Leonard jars during 30 days (Fig.

4c, right panels). Plants inoculated with the hfq mutant exhibited leaves with pale green colour and reached roughly half of the height of the 1021-inoculated plants. Dry weight determinations oxyclozanide of individual plants confirmed this perception; the average weight of plants inoculated with the 1021Δhfq strain was hardly 64% of that of wild-type-inoculated plants. These results indicate that Hfq also influenced late symbiotic stages and is required for the establishment of an efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. 1021Δhfq-induced nodules are almost devoid of nitrogen-fixing bacteroids To analyse in more detail the endosymbiotic phenotype associated to an hfq mutation we performed optical microscopy on nodules induced by the 1021 wild-type strain and its 1021Δhfq mutant derivative (Fig. 5). Wild-type nodules were elongated and pink coloured as indicator of active symbiotic nitrogen fixation (Fig. 5a).

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