The top 20 most abundant miRNAs at each developmental stage are s

The top 20 most abundant miRNAs at each developmental stage are summarized in Table 2. We observed that although there was no obvious dif ference in the total number of unique miRNAs detected in cortex across different developmental stages, the ex pression level of different miRNAs in cortex was very dynamic over stages. We carried selleckchem Bortezomib out the clustering analysis for all detected known miRNAs and 44 novel miRNA candidates based on their relative expression levels. Dataset S1 shows a list of these known and novel miRNAs in the order of cluster ing result. As shown in Figure 2, more miRNAs exhib ited higher expression level in earlier developmental stages than later stages. Nearly 40 % of miRNAs had the highest abundance at E10. Moreover, more miRNAs exhibited a higher abundance in early developmental stages and late developmental stages than in middle stages.

Overall, the ex pression Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries patterns Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of miRNAs fell into four main categor ies, Enriched in early embryonic stages, especially at E10 and E13 and decreased gradually during develop ment, Enriched late postnatally, especially at P14 and P28, and tended to in crease over time, Peaked around neonatal stage, either highest peak or lowest peak. The expression profile of miRNAs provides a hint of their potential functions during development. For ex ample, at E10, which is a stage of fast proliferation and expansion of cortical progenitor cells, more than 100 miRNAs exhibited higher expression than any other developmental stages. Some of these miRNAs, i. e.

rno miR 34c, rno miR 449a, rno miR 301b, rno miR 532 5p, rno miR 219 5p, rno miR Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 451, and rno miR 152, were even 10 fold more abundant at E10 than at any other stages, providing a hint that these 7 miRNAs may play important roles in the regulation of progenitor cell pro liferation. At about E13, when the first waves of neurons are produced from Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries neural progenitor cells in rat cortex, we found that 4 miRNAs were particularly high at this stage, including rno miR 199a 3p, rno miR 494, rno miR 182, and rno miR 7a, suggesting important roles of these miRNAs in neurogenesis. At neonatal stage, when the majority of pyramid neu rons have already migrated to their destinations and are extending axons and dendrites, we found high expression Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of several miRNAs at this stage, i. e. rno miR 137 and rno miR 19b. Consistently, a previous study showed that miR 137 regulates neuronal inhibitor AZD9291 maturation by targeting the ubiquitin ligase Mib 1. Dataset S1 pro vides a complete list of the name and relative abundance of all detected known miRNAs. We note that during the preparation of this manuscript, one group reported the identification of two novel miRNAs from the brain tissue named as rno miR 344b 5p and rno miR 3559 5p.

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