The clinical manifestations of NCC depend on both the location of

The clinical manifestations of NCC depend on both the location of the cyst and the size and number of cysts. The most common symptom is epileptic seizures, but headache with increased intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, motor deficits, meningitis, HM781-36B research buy and psychiatric symptoms have all been reported.7 NCC is increasingly diagnosed in developed countries among immigrants from endemic areas.4 However, data about NCC in travelers is scarce and mainly consists of case reports. There are no estimates of the burden of the disease among travelers. This report summarizes a nation-wide study of NCC diagnosed among Israeli travelers to endemic countries, with an estimation of disease incidence among the traveler

population. We performed a retrospective, nation-wide

survey of travel-related NCC in Israel between the years 1994 and 2009. All major hospitals in Israel were contacted. All cases of NCC (DSM code no. 123.1) during the study years were identified and Navitoclax patient files were reviewed. The following diagnostic criteria were used to define cases of NCC: clinical manifestations of CNS involvement (seizures, headache, and/or focal neurologic deficit) combined with radiological findings suggestive of NCC. In some cases, serology and/or brain biopsy histologo-pathological results were available. Travel-related NCC cases were identified by an epidemiological background compatible with travel to endemic countries. Immigrants and Israeli citizens without travel Sclareol to endemic countries were excluded. Serological tests, when available, were performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA laboratories using the CDC’s enzyme immuno-transfer blot assay with purified T. solium antigens. This assay is extensively described elsewhere.8 Epidemiologic data regarding the Israeli traveler population were available from an Israeli survey.9 This study was approved by the Sheba Medical Center internal review board. During the years 1994 to 2009, 17 cases of NCC were diagnosed in different

Israeli hospitals. Among them, nine cases were found among Israeli travelers to endemic areas, whereas the rest were among immigrants or locally acquired.10 Only the nine travelers are included in this study (Table 1). Previous travel to South and Southeast Asia (including the Indian subcontinent) was documented in seven of nine patients (78%), prior travel to South America was documented in one patient, and another had multiple trips to India, South America, and Central America during the years before diagnosis. Eight patients were males (89%). The average interval (± SD) between return from the suspected travel and symptom onset was 3.2 ± 1.8 years (this was determined in five patients, in three patients data were unavailable, and in one there were multiple trips). The average age was 28 ± 6 years old (range 24–45 years old). The most common symptom at diagnosis was a seizure.

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