Representative images of inclusions in transfected and mock transfected cells are shown in Figure 6C and D, respectively. Figure 6 Transfection with EB1.84-GFP disrupts inclusion fusion. HeLa cells were transfected with EB1.84-GFP or mock transfected. They were then infected with C. trachomatis. Twenty-four hours postinfection, cells were fixed and stained with human sera and inclusions per infected cell were enumerated. The distribution in the number of inclusions per infected cell is shown for the EB1.84-GFP transfected and mock transfected cells in A and B, respectively.
Mock transfected cells were also stained with anti-g-tubulin antibodies (green). Representative transfected and mock transfected cells shown in C Selleck Mdivi1 and D, respectively. Discussion and conclusion The ability of C. trachomatis inclusions to fuse is critical to pathogenicity. Compared to wild type strains, rare isolates with non-fusogenic inclusions are clinically associated with less severe signs of infection and lower numbers of recoverable
bacteria . In cell culture however, a role for inclusion fusion has yet to be determined. Matched pairs of non-fusing and fusing strains as well as nocodazole treated and untreated matched sets grow at similar rates and produce comparable numbers of progeny [16, 17]. Chlamydial inclusion fusion is however critical to pathogenicity though the exact reason for this remains elusive.
Homotypic inclusion fusion in C. trachomatis is a phenotype shared by all serovars. Considering that the metabolically active form of this Tideglusib obligate intracellular organism is spatially Org 27569 sequestered, it is plausible that sharing a single inclusoplasm facilitates genetic and/or nutrient exchange between between co-infecting trachomatis serovars thus promoting their fitness within a population. It is well established that C. trachomatis stores sugars in the form of glycogen in the inclusion [18, 19] and this glycogen storage is linked to virulence as loss of the chlamydial cryptic plasmid results in both loss of glycogen storage as well as reduced virulence . Homotypic inclusion fusion would allow this resource to be shared by bacteria and may lead to a competitive growth advantage in a hostile environment such as the reproductive track JNJ-26481585 solubility dmso during in vivo infection. A complete understanding of mechanisms and factors required for homotypic fusion is currently unknown. The chlamydial inclusion membrane protein IncA is the only chlamydial factor known to be required for homotypic inclusion fusion [9, 21]. Additionally, no host factors have been identified to be required for homotypic fusion. Here, we describe a novel role for proper inclusion trafficking in inclusion fusion. Through live cell imaging studies, we showed that inclusion fusion occurs predominantly at a single site within host cells.