“Mutational heterogeneity represents one of the greatest b

“Mutational heterogeneity represents one of the greatest barriers impeding the progress toward the clinic of gene therapies for many dominantly inherited disorders. A general strategy of gene suppression in conjunction with replacement has been proposed to overcome this mutational heterogeneity. In the current study, various aspects of this strategy are explored for a dominant form of the retinal degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa

(RP), caused by mutations in the rhodopsin gene (RHO-adRP). While >200 mutations have been identified in rhodopsin PI3K inhibitor ( RHO), in principle, suppression and replacement may be employed to provide a single mutation-independent therapeutic for this form of the disorder. In the study we demonstrate in a transgenic mouse simulating human RHO-adRP that RNA interference-based suppression, together with gene replacement utilizing the endogenous mouse gene as the replacement, provides significant benefit as evaluated by electroretinography (ERG). Moreover, this is mirrored histologically by preservation of photoreceptors. AAV-based vectors were

utilized for in vivo delivery of the therapy to the target cell type, the photoreceptors. The results demonstrate that RNAi-based mutation-independent suppression and replacement can provide benefit for RHO-adRP and promote the therapeutic approach as potentially beneficial for other autosomal CA3 Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor dominantly inherited disorders.”
“To further clarify the transformation from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to plasma AZD7762 chemical structure cell myeloma (PCM), we compared interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns in 381 MGUS and 301 PCM patients. According to the World Health Organization and the International Myeloma Working Group, a threshold of 10% of bone marrow plasma cells separated MGUS from PCM. After magnetic activated cell sorting for CD138(+) cells, FISH succeeded in 272 of 301 (90.4%) PCM, but in only 302 of 381 (79.3%) MGUS cases (P < 0.001). Cytogenetic alterations were more frequent in PCM (237 of 272; 87.1%) than MGUS (169 of 302; 56.0%; P = 0.0002). PCM showed a median of two cytogenetic alterations

(range, 0-9) and MGUS one (range, 0-6). Considering only cases with a yield of plasma cells allowing five or more FISH probes, del(13)(q14) was found in 99 of 251 (39.3%) PCM but in only 59 of 267 (22.1%) MGUS (P = 0.0001), del(17p) in 15 PCM (6.0%) and in 6 MGUS (2.2%) patients (P = 0.029). A t(4;14)/IGH-FGFR3 was detected in 28 PCM (11.1%) and 5 MGUS (1.9%; P < 0.001). The t(11;14)/IGH-CCND1 and the t(14;16)/IGH-MAF showed no significant differences. Cytomorphology detected higher numbers of plasma cells than multiparameter flow cytometry (median ratio 4.25). This study underlines the genetic heterogeneity of MGUS similar to PCM. Genetic analysis might contribute to more diversified monitoring strategies for MGUS patients. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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