g 1% Thus, the ethanol titer of fermentation is controlled via

g. 1%. Thus, the ethanol titer of fermentation is controlled via transcriptional regulation and the properties of specific enzymes in Thermoanaerobacter. These results provide evidence for an ethanol balance model and offer the possibility to raise the ethanol titer by metabolic engineering. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Thioacetamide (TAA) has been used to develop a rodent model for hepatocarcinogenesis. To determine the genes with epigenetic modifications in

early LY2835219 concentration hepatocarcinogenesis, we did a genome-wide scan for hypermethylated promoter regions using CpG island microarrays in TAA-promoted rat liver tissue. Eight genes were selected based on the microarray profile; of these, Yy1 and Wdr45b

were confirmed to be hypermethylated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing and downregulated by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Non-neoplastic liver cells had nuclear Yy1 immunoreactivity, while preneoplastic selleck compound foci with glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) immunoreactivity had decreased Yy1 immunoreactivity. The incidence of these foci was proportional to the dose of TAA administered. Co-expression analysis of gene products downstream of Yy1 revealed increased nuclear phospho-c-Myc(+) foci as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic p21(Cip1+) foci in Yy1(-) or GST-P+ foci in response to TAA-promotion dose. Although the absolute number of cells was low, the incidence of death receptor 5(-) foci was increased in Yy1(-) foci in proportion to the TAA dose. Yy1(-)/GST-P+ foci revealed a higher number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells than Yy1(+)/GST-P+ foci, while cleaved caspase-3(+) cells were unchanged between Yy1(-)/GST-P+ and Yy1(+)/GST-P+ foci. In the case of Wdr45b, most GST-P+ foci were Wdr45b(-) and were not increased by TAA promotion. These results suggest involvement of Yy1 in the epigenetic gene regulation at the early stages of TAA promoted cell

proliferation and concomitant cell cycle arrest in preneoplastic lesions. (C) 2014 XMU-MP-1 chemical structure Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To use a novel teaching exercise to encourage students to practice ophthalmoscopy and to measure the learning effect both subjectively and objectively.\n\nDesign: Comparative case series.\n\nParticipants: One hundred thirty-one fourth-year medical students on their 1-week ophthalmology rotations with 89 in the experimental group and 42 in the control group.\n\nMethods: Those in the experimental group had 1 eye dilated and their optic nerve photographed on the first day. The next day, these students received an unlabeled optic nerve photograph belonging to 1 of their peers (typically 8-10 per group) and were given 3 days to identify the student matching the photograph.

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