05; Fig 5) Collectively, there were fewer Th2-promoting cytokin

05; Fig. 5). Collectively, there were fewer Th2-promoting cytokine cells (IL-4) than Th1-promoting cytokine cells (IFN-γ). In our previous

study, we developed surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 expressed on S. cerevisiae and full ApxIIA-expressing S. cerevisiae and demonstrated that oral immunization of mice induced antigen-specific immune responses and protection against A. pleuropneumoniae [3, 9]. However, to develop an efficient oral vaccine, further study of the mucosal immune responses induced by transgenic S. cerevisiae was needed. We selected surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 expressed on S. cerevisiae as an oral vaccine for porcine pleuropneumonia. In mice, it has greater specific antibody activities Alvelestat chemical structure than other yeasts, including ApxIIA#5-secreting S. cerevisiae and full-ApxIIA expressing S. cerevisiae [20]. As APCs, DCs induce primary immune responses and have a key role in both innate and adaptive immunity [21]. In adaptive immune responses, the phenotype and function of DCs determine the initiation of tolerance, memory and polarized Th1 and Th2 differentiation [21]. Stimulation of bone marrow-derived DCs with surface-displayed ApxIIA#5

expressed on S. cerevisiae in vitro indicated that this could generally induce secretion Selleckchem ICG-001 of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, the Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12p70 and the Th2-inducing cytokine IL-10. Moreover, maturation of the APCs was confirmed by showing upregulation of CD40 and CD86 costimulatory molecules and surface MHC class II, all of which are required

for efficient stimulation of T cells [22]. Mucosal protection requires generation of antigen-specific T cells and antibodies [23]. In addition, following ablation of immune responses after oral and nasal immunization of mice depleted of cDCs in vivo, cDCs are reportedly essential for activation of CD4+ T cells and generation of specific antibodies [23]. In the present study, we demonstrated that surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 expressed on S. cerevisiae helped to improve both systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice by generating antigen-specific antibodies and encouraging proliferation of CD4+ T cells, which were stimulated by DCs activated by oral vaccination. Presentation of ApxIIA on activated DCs to CD4+ T cells from mice in the many vaccinated group elicited specific T-cell proliferation. The induction of ApxIIA-specific T-cell proliferation demonstrated that ApxIIA was indeed presented on DCs and that the orally administered surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 expressed on S. cerevisiae induced cellular immune responses in mice. Both serum Ag-specific IgG and Ag-specific IgA antibody activities increased in the vaccinated group. Furthermore, both Apx-specific IgG and IgA antibody-producing cells in the PP, LP and SP were significantly more numerous in the vaccinated group than in the control group.

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